Expectations for students is an umbrella term that links learning outcomes with annotated examples of student work in the subject or short course specification. When teachers, students or parents looking at the online specification scroll through the learning outcomes, a link will sometimes be available to examples of work associated with a specific learning outcome or with a group of learning outcomes. The examples of student work will have been selected to illustrate expectations and will have been annotated by teachers. The examples will include work that is: Exceptional Above expectations In line with expectations. The purpose of the examples of student work is to show the extent to which the learning outcomes are being realised in actual cases. Annotated examples of student work judged by teachers will be included alongside the specification. Learning outcomes Learning outcomes are statements that describe what knowledge, understanding, skills and values students should be able to demonstrate having studied Junior Cycle History. The learning outcomes set out in the following tables apply to all students. As set out here they represent outcomes for students at the end of their three years of study. The specification stresses that the learning outcomes are for three years and therefore the learning outcomes focused on at a point in time will not have been ‘completed’ but will continue to support the students’ learning in history up to the end of junior cycle. To support the exploration of the learning outcomes by teachers, parents and students, a glossary of the action verbs used in the specification is included in Appendix A. The outcomes are numbered within each strand. The numbering is intended to support teacher planning in the first instance and does not imply any hierarchy of importance across the outcomes themselves, nor does it suggest an order to which the learning outcomes should be developed in class. Junior Cycle History is offered at a common level. The examples of student work linked to learning outcomes will offer commentary and insights that support differentiation and inclusive classroom practices.