Physical activity areas in LCPE In Leaving Certificate Physical Education, there are six physical activity areas: Aquatics Athletics Artistic and aesthetic activities Adventure activities Games Personal exercise and fitness. Learners study three physical activities, each one chosen from a different physical activity area. In each physical activity, learners aim to develop the standard of their performance in the three selected physical activities be creative in their personal performance as an individual performer and/or as a member of a team/group be consistent in the quality of their performance. As learners improve their overall performance in the selected physical activities, they should be able to demonstrate quality performance in a broad range of skills and techniques outlined for the different activities. In the performance assessment for LCPE every learner will be required to perform in one of the three selected physical activities. Adventure activities Adventure activities are individual and co-operative activities that take place in a challenging environment, usually outdoors, in which elements that cannot be fully controlled, influence the selection and use of skills and strategies to attain set goals. There is a particular emphasis on interpersonal skills and reflection on learning. Learners may choose one of the following activities: Orienteering Canoeing/Kayaking Rock-climbing Sailing Rowing/Sculling Learners are required to show evidence of their capacity to perform the following skills and techniques in the selected adventure activity: Orienteering Map-reading Pacing skills Navigation skills Route-planning Adhering to safe-practice procedures Demonstrating respect for the environment Kayaking (Moving/white water) Launching and landing—at low wall/bank Paddling—forwards, backwards, stopping, sweep and reverse sweep strokes, edging, stern rudder, ferry glide and reverse ferry glide Breaking in and out of a current: into eddy—bow rudder/low brace and no brace; from eddy—low brace, bow rudder Negotiating and use of currents and water features including stoppers, standing, waves, whirlpools and green water Capsize drill, Eskimo roll, self-rescue and recover Two advanced/group skills from capsize and rescue, (self and with rope), e.g. combat roll, high cross, hanging draw Kayaking (Inland flat water/coastal) Launching and landing—at low wall/bank Paddling—forwards, backwards, stopping, sweep and reverse sweep strokes (static and moving) stern rudder, bow rudder, figure of 8 course (forward and backwards) ferry glide and reverse ferry glide Draw strokes and support strokes—draw strokes/sculling draw, sculling for support Capsize drill, rolls, self-rescue and recovery Deep water rescues—swimmer to boat/X-rescue, rafting Rock-climbing (Outdoors or indoor climbing wall: single pitch) Basic knots Ability to use equipment and implement safe procedures Correct use of climbing calls and communication Climbing bottom and top rope (single and multiple anchors), rope management, belaying, hand/finger/foot jams, 3-point and/or correct use of 2-point contact points, lay backing, undercling, bridging Climbing overhang and/or mantle shelf Traversing feet and hands Abseiling straight demonstrating ability to lock off when collecting equipment part-way down Sailing Leaving/returning to windward shore Leaving/returning to a leeward shore Tacking/going about (upwind) Gybing Capsize drill and recovery Sailing course up/downwind Rowing/Sculling Sculling strokes Rowing on stroke side Rowing on bow side Paddling with square blades Single stroke to hands away Aquatics Aquatics—water-based activities that utilise swimming and/or diving skills and techniques for performance, water safety, or recreational purposes Learners may choose one of the following activities: Lifesaving Survival swim Two swimming strokes Water-polo Synchronised swimming Learners are required to show evidence of their capacity to perform the following skills and techniques in the selected activity in aquatics: Lifesaving Entry into water/entries into unknown conditions Strokes/propelling over a distance to casualty or with casualty Life-saving kick/side stroke Approaching casualty and manoeuvring a casualty when turning Contact/non-contact tows using rigid/non-rigid aids/conserving energy/breath/heat Two different types of rescue Survival swimming Entry into water/entries into unknown conditions Straddle/ability to submerge—feet first/head first/surface dive from water to depth Floating—ability to maintain buoyancy with or without aid Treading water Strokes—stamina swimming in clothing maintaining form/propelling and sculling Underwater swimming Turns in distance swimming Conserving energy/breath/heat—HELP position, HUDDLE position with at least two others Two swimming strokes Body position/alignment Hand entry/hand glide position/hand exit position Kick Stroke co-ordination Head action, breathing action Starts, turns, finishes Sprint and distance swimming Water-polo Passing/receiving skills(various) Shooting skills (various) Moving with the ball Moving free Marking/intercepting skills Synchronised swimming Back layout, tuck position Front layout, front pike Back pike, ballet leg Fishtail, flamingo and bent knee vertical Dolphin arch, surface arch, split walk over, front Duet or trio performance including combinations of these and other synchronised swimming movements Artistic and aesthetic movement Artistic activities provide learners with opportunities to experience creative crafting and performance of activities which involve imaginative combinations of skills, techniques and/or movements in the appropriate style of the event. Aesthetic activities provide learners with opportunities to demonstrate their appreciation of the qualities of the movement and the expressive abilities of the performers. Learners demonstrate this by adopting aesthetic criteria in planning for, performing and evaluating the activity. Learners may choose one activity from either gymnastic or dance options. Gymnastics Dance Artistic Rhythmic Contemporary dance Folk dance Modern Ballet Jazz Tap Ethnic Traditional Gymnastics Learners will be required to show evidence of their capacity to perform the following skills and techniques in the selected gymnastic activity. Artistic gymnastics Jumps (minimum 2)—tuck/pike/straddle/180 degrees turn Rolls (minimum 2)—forward/backwards/other Balances (minimum 2)—handstand/headstand/arabesque/other Weight transference (minimum 2)—cartwheel/round off/hand spring/back flip Learners are expected to incorporate at least four of the following agilities in the short floor sequence Backward roll to handstand Handspring Back flip Front somersault Hand stand ½ turn One-handed cartwheel Back somersault Back/forward walkovers. Learners are required to demonstrate proficiency in at least two vaults from the following: Handspring Short arm overswing Optional vault of similar tariff (not through or straddle). Rhythmic gymnastics Learners should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the following skills and techniques in a short floor sequence: Balances Pivots/rolls Splits Hops/leaps/skips Body waves/bends/circles/swings/turns. Learners are required to set routines to music and use different pieces of apparatus from a ball, hoop, ribbon, rope or club. Dance Learners are required to perform an individual and group dance in which they demonstrate consideration of the following elements: Technical ability: posture, alignment, co-ordination, balance, strength, flexibility, mobility and control. Overall choreographic design includes consideration of the following: choreographic content - use of space, e.g. levels and pathways, timing and relationship to other dancers, choreographic construction - motif and variation, choreographic form – e.g. canon, unison, binary, rondo. Dance style, e.g. contemporary, folk, modern, ballet, jazz, tap, ethnic, traditional. Use of props and music. Overall sense of performance including the ability to communicate artistically and aesthetically with an audience. Athletics Athletics—running, jumping, throwing and walking events performed indoors or outdoors which are measurable in terms of the performer’s own ability but also against standards set by others’ achievements. In choosing athletics as one of the physical activity areas, learners are required to select one of the three categories: Running Throwing Jumping. The assessment of performance will focus on one activity within the chosen category. Learners are required to show evidence of their capacity to perform the skills and techniques in the selected activity, e.g. discus from the throwing category. Learners may choose one activity from one of the following categories: Running Sprints Middle distance Long distance Hurdles Starts and finishes Upper body action (head and arms) Lower body action (legs) Overall efficiency Throwing Shot-put Discus Javelin Hammer Grip, stance and preparation Movement into throwing action Release and follow through Overall efficiency Jumping High jump Long jump Triple jump Run up Take off Flight Landing Overall efficiency Games Games—individual, pair or team games that require the use of activity-specific skills, game appreciation, decision-making, tactical knowledge and strategic thinking in pursuit of a defined goal. In choosing games as one of the physical activity areas, learners are required to study one of three categories: Invasion Striking/Fielding Net/Wall. The assessment of performance will focus on one activity within the chosen category, for example, Gaelic football in invasion games. Learners may choose one activity from one of the following categories: Invasion games Gaelic football Hurling/Camogie Rugby Union Soccer Basketball Hockey Netball Olympic handball Net/Wall games Badminton Tennis Volleyball Table tennis Handball Squash Striking/Fielding games Cricket Softball Rounders Invasion games Gaelic football Handling (passing/receiving, fielding, hand pass, pick up) Tackling/intercepting (challenging, front, shoulder, displacing, blocking) Running/moving with the ball (soloing, toe to hand, dummying, dribbling, side-step, swerve, change of pace) Kicking (hand, ground, instep/drop, driven, clearance, return to play) Shooting (long, short, 45’s) Hurling/Camogie Handling (passing/receiving, fielding, hand pass, pick up) Tackling/intercepting (challenging, front, shoulder, displacing, blocking) Running/moving with the ball (soloing, pick up, dummying, dribbling, side-step, swerve, change of pace) Hitting (hand, ground, in the air, drop, clearance) Shooting (long, short, 65’s) Rugby Union Handling (passing/receiving, long/short, stationary/run, high/low, pick up from ground, quick spin, diving, switch) Tackling/intercepting (front, rear, side, smother) Retaining ball in maul Retaining possession on ground in maul Running with the ball (swerve, side-step, dummy, change of pace) Basketball Passing/receiving (handling, chest, bounce, side, overhead, running, stationary) Dribbling/moving with the ball (both hands, change of pace, reverse) Shooting (L/R, lay ups, driving) Shooting (set, jump, 3 point) Marking/intercepting (1v1, against ball handler, rebounding) Footwork Soccer Outfield Passing/receiving/control (short, long, ground, lofted, chip, both feet) Dribbling/moving with the ball (both feet) Shooting (short, long, volley, half volley) Heading – defence and attack Tackling/jockeying/closing down/intercepting Goal keeping Receiving/distributing Kicking–from hand/dead ball Shot-stopping (high/low) Taking ball at the feet Taking high crosses/punching Hockey Outfield Passing/receiving/control (push, stopping, short, long, slap, hitting, reverse, L/R) Dribbling/moving with ball open/reverse/change of pace Flicking – short/long, high/low, penalties Shooting (L/R circle, close, distance) Tackling/jockeying/closing down/intercepting Goal keeping Receiving/distributing (both feet) Defending short corners Saving penalty flicks Shot stopping (high/low, edge of circle) Sliding tackling on attacking player Netball Passing/receiving/control (one/two-handed, shoulder, lob, bounce, running, chest pass) Footwork (one/two foot landings, pivot) Shooting- close/distance/run (one/two handed, forward/backward, step shots) Moving free (dodge/change of pace) Marking/intercepting/rebounding Olympic handball Passing/receiving/control (one/two-handed catch at various heights –stationary and on the move) Footwork (one/two foot landings, pivot) Shooting- close/distance/run (one-handed, jump, penalty) Moving with the ball Marking/jockeying/intercepting Moving free (dodge/change of pace) Net/Wall games Badminton Service (high/low) Net play (forehand/backhand) Clears (forehand/backhand) Drop shots Smash Tennis Service (variations) Drives (forehand/backhand) Volleys (forehand/backhand) Lob Smash Table tennis Service (forehand/backhand variations) Drives (forehand/backhand) Push (forehand/backhand) Block Smash Volleyball Service (under/over arm, frontal, floating/side floating) Volleying (set forward/backward) Forearm pass/dig Smash/spike Blocking Squash Service (forehand/backhand variations) Drives (forehand/backhand) Volleys (forehand/backhand) Boasts Lob Handball (60 x 30, 40 x 20) Underarm stroke Overhand stroke Back wall shot Straight hit from short line Fly shot Side-arm stroke (40 x 20 only) Serve Striking/Fielding games Cricket Batting (straight/on/off-drive, forward/back Batting (cut/pull/glance) Bowling (medium or fast or spin, line/length Fielding–close Fielding–deep Softball/Rounders Catching/receiving/throwing (various) Hitting/striking/batting Pitching/bowling (various) (medium, fast, swerve, spin, line/length) Fielding on base/close Fielding deep/outfield Personal exercise and fitness activities Personal exercise and fitness—active and purposeful participation in a personally-designed exercise and fitness programme that reflect personal interests, goals and principles of training. Learners may choose one method of aerobic training and one other conditioning and resistance activity. Aerobic training Continuous training Constant intensity Purpose FITT formula Intermediate slow distance (20-60mins) Long slow distance (>60mins) Interval training Readiness Work: recovery ratios Interval duration FITT formula Fartlek training Readiness Terrain Interval duration FITT formula Aerobics/Step aerobics Technical description of skills Routine Transition Timing and rhythm Training zones FITT formula Spinning Spinning techniques Workout intensity Session design Training zones FITT formula Indoor rowing Time Distance Targets Resistance Session design One of the following conditioning and resistance activities : Weight training Upper extremity pushing Pressing Extensions Upper extremity pulling Rows Curls Lower extremity exercises Squats Lunges Core stability Relaxation and breathing Control Routine Alignment Flow Circuit training Exercises specific to: Themes Equipment Work-recovery intervals Learners are expected to demonstrate the ability to apply the following aspects to each method of training: Principles of training Readiness Specificity Progression Overload Rest/recovery Training zones Thresholds Work-recovery intervals Warm-up/Cool-down. Learners are required to show evidence of their capacity to perform elements of a personal exercise and fitness programme designed to enhance either performance in a physical activity or health-related physical fitness. The performance should include: Five-minute warm up including the necessary elements of a warm-up. Fifteen-minute development section: this section would include a cardiovascular section and a muscular strength and endurance section. The development section could include a circuit format. Five-minute cool down including the necessary elements of a cool down. Learners are required to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of relevant progressions and adaptations and safe practice in the selected activities.