Aim The Specification for Junior Cycle Modern Foreign Languages aims to develop communicative language skills broadly aligned with the A band (A1 to A2, basic user) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and its descriptors. It also aims to enable students to explore the interdependence between language and culture, to develop their appreciation of the relevance of languages to their lives for personal, social, educational, vocational and leisure purposes, and to derive enjoyment from language learning. More specifically it encourages all students to actively engage in language activities and tasks, developing the capacity to understand written and spoken language communicate effectively and confidently in the target language in familiar contexts through a range of media develop their capacity to use appropriate structures and vocabulary for the purposes of communication, both written and oral enjoy a language-learning experience that will facilitate and encourage them to continue learning languages in future be reflective and autonomous in their language learning, and become actively involved in monitoring and assessing their progress appreciate their own and other cultures develop skills that they can apply to other areas of study and to their lives.  Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The full text is available on the Council of Europe website: https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf.