The strands, elements and their associated learning outcomes are set out below. While the strand units are numbered, this is for ease of identification and does not imply a hierarchy of approach. The strands themselves are not numbered because it is recognised that in order to acquire language proficiency, one needs to develop communicative competence, plurilingual and pluricultural competence in an integrated way.
This strand encompasses linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences. As indicated earlier, learning outcomes in this strand are organised by the four modes of communication (reception, interaction, production and mediation). In this strand, learners will actively engage in tasks and activities in order to develop their ability to communicate effectively in a wide range of scenarios/contexts/situations.
Follow classroom interactions including pair and group work, presentations and detailed instructions.
CLC 2. Explore a range of authentic oral, written and multi-modal texts in a variety of genres and formats for pleasure, research or comparison.
CLC 3. Identify and gather specific information from a range of oral, written and multi-modal texts for a particular purpose.
CLC 4. Understand a wide lexical range at the level of individual words and expressions, as well as idioms and collocations in context.
CLC 5. Identify factual information, the main line of argument, different viewpoints and conclusions in a range of oral, written and multi-modal texts.
CLC 6. Understand the main points of oral, written and multi-modal texts such as news bulletins, advertisements, announcements, narratives and other interactions expressed in a range of registers and variations of the target language.
CLC 7. Understand descriptions of places, events, personal experiences, feelings and perspectives expressed in everyday language.
Interact with others in various ways: to discuss topics of interest, to exchange information, to compare and contrast viewpoints, to suggest solutions to problems.
CLC 9. Deal with most transactions likely to arise while obtaining goods and services.
CLC 10. Give accounts of social and personal events, experiences and activities, and respond with reasonable detail in real time in face-to-face and online interactions.
CLC 11. Use a range of suitable expressions and phrases to initiate, maintain and close simple face-to-face conversations, such as giving instructions, asking for details and/or clarifications as appropriate.
CLC 12. Use a range of strategies to help focus a discussion, such as by summarising the main point, reporting back, reacting to what has been said, inviting others to contribute.
Convey their message clearly enough to be understood with generally clear pronunciation, intonation, stress and rhythm.
CLC 14. Use linguistic patterns, structures and strategies to communicate with reasonable precision in familiar contexts.
CLC 15. Produce continuous and coherent text using spelling, punctuation and a range of linguistic devices appropriately to connect simple elements.
CLC 16. Express opinions, feelings and experience, in writing and orally, on subjects relating to everyday life and use simple expressions to justify viewpoints, plans and/or actions.
CLC 17. Develop a range of creative texts on subjects of personal interest in oral, written and multi-modal formats, for example, songs, poems, drama, stories.
Convey, in writing and orally, the main points involved in clear, well-structured texts on subjects that are familiar and of personal or current interest.
CLC 19. Collaborate in simple practical tasks, asking what others think, making suggestions and understanding responses, asking for repetition or reformulation, as necessary.
CLC 20. Communicate the main point of what is heard/read in predictable, everyday situations, inviting others to explain things, indicating understanding and/or agreement or disagreement.
CLC 21. Support a shared communication culture by introducing people and exchanging information about priorities, recognising when difficulties occur and using simple phrases to seek compromise and agreement.
CLC 22. Respond to creative oral, written and multi-modal texts in a range of ways, for example, by relating events to personal experiences, explaining the significance of events, making connections between them and describing characters and their relationships.
CLC 23. Explain the main points of ideas and problems, summarising factual information including data, identifying advantages and disadvantages, and giving a personal response through written and multimodal texts in familiar contexts.
In this strand learners will develop their plurilingual and pluricultural competence.
Plurilingualism places value on the linguistic and cultural diversity of learners. Learners’ knowledge of different languages and cultures are not siloed; all knowledge and experiences of languages and cultures interact and contribute to building communicative competence.
Plurilingualism highlights the need for learners to draw on all of their linguistic and cultural resources and experiences in order to more fully participate in social and educational contexts*. This helps them to achieve mutual understanding, to gain access to knowledge and thus further develop their linguistic and cultural repertoire. The aim is not simply to achieve ‘mastery’ in one, two or three languages, each in isolation but rather to ‘develop a linguistic repertory, in which all linguistic abilities have a place’**.
Plurilingual comprehension involves, for example, using one’s receptive knowledge in one language to deduce the meaning of texts in another language.
Pluriculturalism describes the use of pluricultural competences in a commnicative situation when competences other than language competences come into play***. The various cultures to which a learner has access to do not coexist side by side; they are not mentally compartmentalised. They are compared, contrasted and actively interact to enable the learner to communicate more effectively, for example, taking into consideration differences in behaviours (including gestures, tones and attitudes), discussing over-generalisations and stereotypes****.
* CEFR Companion Volume, Council of Europe, 2018, p. 157.
** CEFR, Council of Europe 2011, Section 1.3, p. 5.
*** Ibid, p. 53.
**** Ibid, p. 158.
Make sense of unfamiliar words by considering the constituent parts of the word, such as word roots and lexical elements, as well as the wider context of an oral, written and multi-modal text.
PPC 2. Recognise a range of linguistic patterns and structures (for example verbal system, syntax) and understand their meaning in context.
PPC 3. Apply communication and compensation strategies when communication is impaired (such as by describing something similar, using synonyms, gestures, translanguaging) and thereby avoid misunderstandings.
PPC 4. Further develop learning strategies to recall, understand and use the target language for the purpose of oral and written communication.
PPC 5. Creatively exploit their plurilingual repertoire in different languages in order to communicate with others in unexpected situations or to make sense of texts.
PPC 6. Recognise similarities and differences in the way concepts are expressed and understood across different languages.
PPC 7. Compare and contrast linguistic patterns and lexical expressions in the languages they know to support their comprehension of oral, written and multi-modal texts.
PPC 8. Reflect on the language-learning process, using feedback to improve.
Explore and appreciate popular culture through a range of media.
PPC 10. Research and discuss a range of aspects of the target language country/countries, communities and cultures, for example geographical features, significant historical events, facts, famous people and places.
PPC 11. Research aspects of the diverse cultural heritage, for example cuisine, folklore, music, traditions, the arts and religions.
PPC 12. Interpret aspects of cultures and communities in everyday living, social conventions, interpersonal relations and evolving values and beliefs through engagement with a range of oral, written and multi-modal texts.
PPC 13. Develop and demonstrate awareness of customs, beliefs and attitudes of people in the target language cultures and communities.
PPC 14. Explain features of the target language cultures and communities to people with different cultural backgrounds, using a range of relevant formats and media.
PPC 15. Demonstrate an awareness of and use appropriate verbal and non-verbal social conventions when interacting with others.
PPC 16. Consider similarities and differences between the target language culture(s) and other culture(s), respectfully recognising the feelings and different world views of others.
PPC 17. Support communication and interaction across cultures by showing interest, empathy, agreement and understanding.
PPC 18. Explore their own cultural identity and consider common stereotypes of their own and other cultures.