Expectations for students is an umbrella term that links learning outcomes with annotated examples of student work. When teachers, students or parents looking at the online specification scroll over the learning outcomes, a link will sometimes be available to examples of work associated with a specific learning outcome or with a group of learning outcomes. The examples of student work will have been selected to illustrate expectations and will have been annotated by teachers. The examples will include work that is: exceptional above expectations in line with expectations The purpose of the examples of student work is to show the extent to which the learning outcomes are being realised. Examples of student work annotated by teachers will be developed over time. The examples of student work linked to learning outcomes will also offer commentary and insights that support differentiation. Learning outcomes Learning outcomes are statements that describe what knowledge, understanding, skills and values students should be able to demonstrate having studied modern foreign languages in junior cycle. Across all of the strands, students should be given every opportunity to use a range of media to display and present what they have learned. Junior cycle modern foreign languages are offered at a common level. The learning outcomes set out in the following tables have therefore been developed as unconstrained outcomes to apply to all students. They lend themselves to differentiated teaching, learning and assessment. The learning outcomes are broadly aligned to the A band of the CEFR (A1-A2) and as set out here they represent outcomes for students at the end of their three years of study. The learning outcomes are for three years and therefore the learning outcomes focused on at a point in time will not have been ‘completed’, but will continue to support the students’ learning of modern foreign languages up to the end of junior cycle. The outcomes are numbered within each strand. The numbering is intended to support teacher planning in the first instance and does not imply any hierarchy of importance across the outcomes themselves. The learning outcomes describe clearly what students will be expected to achieve and should be able to do in the target language. They refer to specific domains of language use (public, personal and educational), which are appropriate to the students’ age and experience.