Learning outcomes are statements that describe what knowledge, understanding, skills and values students should be able to demonstrate having studied business studies in junior cycle. The learning outcomes set out in the following tables apply to all students. As set out here, they represent outcomes for students at the end of their three years of study. The specification stresses that the learning outcomes are for three years and therefore the learning outcomes focused on at a point in time will not have been ‘completed’ but will continue to support the students’ learning of business studies up to the end of junior cycle. The outcomes are numbered within each strand. The numbering is intended to support teacher planning in the first instance and does not imply any hierarchy of importance across the outcomes themselves. Junior cycle business studies is offered at a common level. The examples of student work linked to learning outcomes will offer commentary and insights that support different standards of student work.