In this section a number of topics are presented to clarify the depth of treatment required and to give examples of teaching methodologies that might be used.
Vitamin A is available to the body in two forms: retinol or pure vitamin A, and carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A, that is, it can be converted to vitamin A in the intestine. It is sometimes known as provitamin A. Retinol is found in animal foods. Carotene is present with chlorophyll in plant foods, which is converted to vitamin A in the body.
- halibut liver oil, cod liver oil, liver, butter, margarine (fortified with the vitamin), cheese, egg yolk, herrings, milk and cream in summer
- it can also be found in supplements.
- Needed for the formation of bone and growth hormone
- By maintaining healthy membranes (cornea and bronchial tubes) it helps prevent invasion by disease-causing micro-organisms
- Promotes healthy skin
- Necessary for the eyes to manufacture rhodopsin in the retina, which improves ability to see in dim light.
WHO IS LIKELY TO BE DEFICIENT
People who limit their consumption of liver, dairy foods or vegetables that contain beta-carotene can develop a vitamin A deficiency. The earliest sign of deficiency is poor night vision.
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
- Retarded growth; malformed bones
- Xerophthalmia--inflammation of the eye membrane, which may lead to blindness
- Dry skin (follicular keratosis)
- Night blindness
- Lowered resistance to infection.
Children (one to seven year olds): 300µg
Pregnant and Nursing women: 950µg
- *Yellow, fat-soluble alcohol
- *Insoluble in water, but readily mixable with most organic solvents
- *Can be destroyed by oxygen, as when exposed to air and light. Processingand storage (1.3.5) expose vitamin A in foods to the risks of considerable loss
- *During food storage there are significant advantages in using packaging (1.3.5), which provides effective oxygen and light protection. The use of cans allows nitrogen purging of the headspace, thereby greatly enhancing the oxidative stability of the food and extending its shelf life
- *Heat-stable, therefore little affected by cooking or heat preservation; but prolonged high temperatures destroy it
- *Some loss when food is dried, as when raisins are dried in the sun.
Links to other parts of the syllabus arein italic type.
VITAMIN A (RETINOL)
Carotenoids are found in the chloroplasts of green tissues in plants. They are pigments responsible for most of the yellow and orange colours of fruit and vegetables (1.3.2). They are also present in green vegetables, but the colour is masked by chlorophyll. Normally associated with plants, carotenoids find their way into animal foods through the animal's diet and are responsible for the colour of egg yolk and the visible fat on meat. Carotenoids are divided into two groups: carotenes, which tend to give an orange colour, and xanthophylls, which are the dominant pigments in yellow tissue. Carotenes are precursors of vitamin A, being converted to vitamin A in the gut wall. The carotene family includes beta-carotene, alphacarotene, lutein, and lycopene, however, unlike beta-carotene, most of these nutrients do not convert to significant amounts of vitamin A. Beta-carotene itself is about one-sixth as effective as an equal weight of retinol.
SOURCES OF BETA - CAROTENE
- kale, carrots, spinach, watercress, fresh and dried apricots, melons, peaches, prunes, tomatoes, cabbage, peas
- in green vegetables; the darker the green, the more carotene present
- used in colouring margarine
- it is also found in nutritional supplements.
WHO IS LIKELY TO BE DEFICIENT?
People who limit their consumption of vegetables containing betacarotene could be at higher risk of developing vitamin A deficiency. However, because beta-carotene is not an essential nutrient, deficiencies do not occur.
- *Bright yellow or orange oil. The distinctive feature of carotenoids responsible for their special properties and functions is a series of conjugated double bonds. The intensity and hues of plant foods depend on which carotenoids are present and their concentrations
- *Almost insoluble in water. Liposoluble, dissolving in fat solvents, such as acetone and alcohol
- *Stability: Generally stable, but heating in the absence of air (as in canning) affects the chemical bonds in the molecule, causing loss of colour intensity; there is therefore a difference in colour between some canned and fresh fruit, such as pineapple. Oxidation can also result in the formation of compounds that give undesirable aromas to some food
Blanching, freezing and heattreatment (1.3.9) have little effect on carotenoids. However, they are affected by dehydration
- *It is a powerful anti-oxidant (1.3.6)
- *Use as food colorants (1.3.6): carotenoids find their way into food products by direct addition or indirectly through an animal's food.
Links to other parts of the syllabus arein italic type
Folate is the name given to a group of closely related compounds derived from folic acid. It is one of the B group of vitamins. The natural form of folic acid, or folate, is found in a variety of foods. Research has shown that folate can reduce the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect, such as spina bifida. Spina bifida is a defect of the spine found in some babies at birth. It causes severe disability, including paralysis of the legs and mental handicap, and may lead to death.
- leafy green vegetables, potatoes, offal, pulses, fortified corn flakes
- it may also be taken in supplement form as folic acid (the manufactured form of folate).
- Necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA, the genetic material that controls the growth and repair of all cells
- Essential for the formation of red blood cells
- Helps support the functions of the immune system
- Reduces the risk or neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, when taken before and during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy
- Recent research suggests that folate may also play an important role in the prevention of heart attacks, strokes, and some common cancers.
- Mild deficiency: fatigue
- Severe deficiency: anaemia (1.2.4)
- Neural tube defects: all women planning a pregnancy (1.2.3) are advised to take supplements of folic acid, as it is difficult to get the extra folate needed through diet alone. All women of child-bearing age are also advised to consume adequate amounts of folate, so that they will have a sufficient intake if they conceive without planning.
- *Fairly heat-stable
- *Sensitive to light and oxidation
- *Stable in an acid environment.
Links to other parts of the syllabus arein italic type.
1.1.5 VITAMINS FOLATE
The concept of energy is introduced, and its role in the body is explained. The importance of balancing energy intake and output is emphasised.
Students work in pairs or groups to investigate the factors affecting the energy value of foods.
- Take a 100 kcal portion of a particular product in various forms
- Display and compare the size of portions
- Discuss and enumerate the factors that affect the calorific (energy) value of these products
Examples of foods andfood products
- Raw apple, apples sauce, apple pie, apple juice
- Boiled potato, potato chips, potato salad, cooked potato dish (for example, gratin Dauphinois)
- Steamed white fish, fish in batter-grilled or deep fried
- Raw celery, celery with white sauce, celery and apple salad.
SAMPLE CASE STUDY
Kate is a nineteen-year-old student. Her doctor has explained that her excess weight is contributing to her breathing difficulties and has suggested that she make a real effort to lose some weight. Kate feels she doesn't overeat, but she does admit to eating a chocolate bar for her morning break and a couple of packets of crisps during the day. A sample of her daily diet is given below. Kate's excess weight means that she finds exercise very difficult.
Breakfast: Mug of coffee
Lunch: Bag of chips and a sausage, a can of cola
Dinner: Deep-fried fish fillet, potatoes, baked beans
Dessert: Apple pie and ice-cream
Other: Three slices of toast after school
Tea and ham sandwiches before bed
(i) What daily intake of energy would be recommended for Kate?
(ii) Kate doesn't eat a huge quantity of food, but is the food she is eating healthy? Using food composition tables, calculate the number of kilojoules Kate is consuming in one day. You will have to work out approximate weights first. You can assume that portion sizes are average. How does this compare with her recommended daily intake?
(iii) Design a healthier daily menu for Kate, which will keep her energy intake below her energy output.
(iv) Suggest some dietary and behavioural changes that will help Kate achieve a more healthy weight.
Avariety of case studies presenting different situations could be presented using this model.
This case study could then be followed by a practical cookery class based on planning healthy substantial meals, with the emphasis on keeping energy intake lower than energy output.
LINKS TO OTHER PARTS OF THE SYLLABUS
|Energy value of protein||1.1.2|
|Energy value of carbohydrate||1.1.3|
|Energy value of lipids||1.1.4|
|Food composition tables||1.2.2|
|Dietary and food requirements||1.2.3|
|The Irish diet||1.2.4|
|Meal management and planning||1.3.3|
|Food processing and packaging|
(food labels--information and energy)
|Consumer choices: energy information on|
labels, foods marketed as low-energy food
Changes in food and eating patterns in the Irish diet from the beginning of the twentieth century
A BRIEF HISTORY OF FOOD AND EATING PATTERNS DURING THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Agricultural reform in the late 1800s resulted in a fall in the potato acreage, from over one million acres in 1870 to just over half a million acres in 1900. The diet of the general population had greatly improved. Poverty, however, persisted, especially in the cities. Home-made bread (sometimes of flour, sometimes of Indian meal) and porridge and stirabout were also staple foods at this time. The introduction of white bread and tea to the ordinary household of the second half of the nineteenth century changed the diet pattern of the Irish, and home-baked wheaten bread suffered a decline. While bacon and eggs as a breakfast dish became popular with the middle classes in the second half of the nineteenth century, porridge was still eaten as a first course and always given to children and servants. In addition to oatmeal porridge, various corn and meal mixtures were eaten and drunk. Whole-hulled wheat boiled in milk was popular, as was raw oatmeal eaten with thick milk or cream or buttermilk.
The changes in dietary patterns seen in the last century correlate with changes both in agricultural production methods and in changes in food retail and distribution. Dietary surveys at the beginning of the twentieth century reveal that the daily adult consumption of sugar increased ten-fold between 1860 and 1900. Between 1863 and 1904 there were remarkable changes, including a very considerable increase in the fat component of the diet-associated in turn with increased consumption of dairy products and meats-- and a decrease in carbohydrate consumption. In the first decade of the twentieth century, more and more people in rural areas were beginning to have access to shop goods, which were often regarded as superior to those produced at home.
THE IMPACT OF THE TWO WORLD WARS
The First World War had a considerable impact on the Irish diet and on that of the urban working class in particular. Unemployment was extensive, and food prices were markedly increased. By the mid-1930s the Irish diet was, however, still comparatively low in fat and high in carbohydrate. The Second World War caused temporary supply problems but not fundamental changes to the Irish diet. It was the 1960s that were the years of great change. These were the years in which new foods (such as French, Italian, and Chinese) were introduced and accepted in certain sub-groups in urban areas. The consumption of beef, pork, poultry and margarine increased, while the consumption of potatoes, bread and flour decreased.
INTAKE OF NUTRIENTS FOR 1961 AND 1971
|Calories||2,689 Kcal||2,539 Kcal|
|Carbohydrate||361 g||300 g|
|Percentage energy CHO||54%||47%|
|Percentage energy fat||30%||35%|
|Protein||105 g||110 g|
|Percentage energy protein||16%||18%|
|Polyunsaturated fats||4.6 g||6.1 g|
There was a decrease in the total energy and carbohydrate intake and an increase in the total intake of fat, protein, and polyunsaturated fats.
Before 1990 the last National Nutrition Survey was carried out between 1946 and 1948. It consisted of a dietary investigation of 2,350 families, divided fairly evenly between urban and rural areas. The results were generally satisfactory for the population as a whole (for example, where children were concerned, about 75% were classified as being in a `good nutritional state' whereas about 2.5% were defined as being in a poor nutritional state.
1.2.4 THE IRISH DIET
COMPARISON OF THE AVERAGE DAILY NUTRIENT IN TAKE PER CAPITA PER DAY IN 1948, 1990, AND 1999
| ||Energy MJ||Percentage|
|1999||9.35||17||34||46|| || |
The higher energy and nutrient intakes in the 194648 survey are extremely striking. This can possibly be explained by the higher energy expenditure of the general population as a result of factors such as greater physical labour, less transport, few labour-saving devices, and poorer housing quality, insulation, and heating. There has also been a marked increase in relative fat intake (of which saturated fat forms the greater part); and a significant decrease in iron intake. The high consumption of milk at this time can possibly be attributed to the large percentage of farming families in the 1948 survey. The higher potato intake in 1948 contributed to the higher energy intake, although a hundred years earlier, in 1840, the Irishman's diet consisted of 10 lb or 4,800 g of potatoes and 1 pint whole milk per day. The 1990 cheese intake is double that of 1948. In the mid-1940s there was relatively little purchasing of `shop goods'. The intake of vegetables in 1990 is less than half that of 1948.
Comparing the percentage of energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrate from 1863 to 1990, it is seen that the fat intake has increased dramatically, from 24% at the beginning of the century to today's level of about 36%, and correspondingly the carbohydrate content has decreased. Dietary fibre has fallen over the last fifty years to about 90% of the mid-1930s level, from just over 20 g per capita per day to about 18 g per capita per day. While the two world wars caused temporary disruption to the Irish diet, it was the 1960s that were the years of great change.
The main cook in Irish households is currently the housewife. A study entitled `The Irish Housewife: A Portrait' by Irish Consumer Research Ltd 1986 revealed that although the housewife is concerned to provide meals that will be eaten and enjoyed, she has diverse tastes to try and satisfy. Husbands tend to be conservative and want the basic traditional dishes, while children, almost universally it seems, want burgers, chips, sausages, tinned baked beans and fish fingers all the time. Most children are not keen on fish or on salads or vegetables, apart from baked beans.
1.3.1 STRUCTURE OF THE IRISH FOOD INDUSTRY
The Department of Agriculture and Food is the primary regulator of food production in Ireland. Other Government departments, such as the Department of Health and Children, play a significant role. However, many important functions are delegated to agencies that act independently of the central structures of government.
STATE DEPARTMENT AND AGENCIES FOR THE FOOD AND DRINK INDUSTRIES
- Department of Agriculture and Food
- An Bord Bia
- An Bord Glas
- Bord Iascaigh Mhara
- Department of Communication, Marine and Natural Resources
- Enterprise Ireland
- Food Safety Authority
The Irish food industry is made up of nine different sectors:
- Dairy and ingredients
- Pig meat
- Edible horticulture
- Prepared consumer foods
- There are more than 700 food and drink companies
- Food and drink companies provide 25% of manufacturing employment
- The total value of the Irish food and drink industry in 1999 was more than £10 billion.
MAJOR FOOD EXPORTS
- Dairy and ingredients: Increase in whole milk powder, butter and cheese, decrease in milk
- Lamb: Principal market in France. Recent growth in market to Mediterranean
- Pork and bacon: World oversupply has adversely affected pig meat. Principal destination is Germany
- Beef: Britain is our principal market. Netherlands, Italy and France as core target markets. Egypt, Russia and the Persian Gulf remain significant markets
- Horticulture: Fresh mushrooms are our biggest export, mainly to the British market. Fifty per cent of British retail sales are Irish
- Beverages: Increased growth in beer, cream liquors, spirits, mineral waters, and soft drinks
- Prepared consumer foods: Big increase as a result of life-style changes. Specialist food and drinks have also increased.
IRISH FOOD EXPORTS ARE 10% OF ALL EXPORTS
In 1999 Irish food exports were £5.2 billion (6.6 billion euro)
MARKET DISTRIBUTION OF EXPORTS BY VALUE, 1999
39% United Kingdom
35% Continental Europe
26% Rest of World
An Bord Bia, 2000
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPORTS BY SECTOR, 1999
19% Consumer Foods
3% Lamb 2% Horticulture 4% Mariculture
6% Pigmeat, Poultry
32% Dairy & Ingredients
An Bord Bia, 2000
Prepared consumer foods had the biggest export growth in recent years. Within this sector, ready meals and convenience foods and other value-added foods demonstrated the highest growth of any food category, while confectionery also performed well.
MAJOR FOOD IMPORTS
Almost all the foods we export we also import. We import food when our own produce is out of season, or when we have not enough to meet consumer demands. However, there are many foods and food ingredients that we consume that we do not produce in Ireland. Many imported foods are packaged here or in Britain. Some examples of imported foods are given under the headings below.
|Type of food||Food||Country of origin|
| ||Pineapples||Costa Rica|
| ||Satsuma||South Africa|
| ||Apples||South Africa|
| ||Kiwi fruit||Chile|
| ||Mange tout||Zambia|
| ||Green beans||Egypt|
| ||Sugar snaps||Kenya|
| ||Tinned tomatoes||Italy|
| ||Tea||Sri Lanka and Kenya|
| ||Coffee||Colombia, Costa Rica, Kenya|
| ||Dried pasta||Italy|
| ||Soya sauce||Hong Kong|
| ||Stir fry sauces||Australia|
| ||Casserole sauces||South Africa|
| ||Olive oil||Italy, Spain|
| ||Jars of asparagus||Spain|
| ||Bottled water||France|
| ||Maple syrup||Canada|
| ||Cheeses||France, Netherlands, Italy, Denmark|
ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESSES AND HOME ENTERPRISES
These come under the heading `Irish speciality food and drink'. In promoting these, An Bord Bia refer to two important elements:
- A fertile landscape, covered predominantly by wellwatered grass, that provides perfect growing conditions for both livestock and crops
- Highly skilled producers, who possess a unique understanding of and respect for the goodness this land produces.
Many of these businesses are family-run, and they incorporate natural ingredients in a diverse range of food and drink products. Many use recipes handed down through the generations, while others add new influences from further afield. Companies operate to European hygiene and safety standards and are dedicated to achieving excellence in product quality and customer service.
Speciality food and drinks have eight sectors:
- Bakery: soda bread, biscuits, cakes, puddings, waffles, gluten-free flour
- Beverages: beers, apple juice, mineral waters
- Condiments: sauces, dressings, relishes, flavoured oils, herbs, mustards
- Confectionery: sweets, chocolates, toffees, desserts, popcorn, truffles
- Dairy: Cheeses, yoghurts, dairy spreads
- Prepared foods: chilled vegetable products, frozen meals, frozen vegetables, prepared desserts, prepared salads
- Preserves: jams, chutneys, marmalades
- Speciality meats and fish: smoked fish, frozen mussels, black and white puddings, organic meats, spiced beef, ham, sausages, gourmet pork and bacon products.
HEADINGS FOR INVESTIGATION OF LOCAL FACTORY OR BUSINESS
- When was it set up?
- Why did it set up in the area?
- Are the suppliers local?
- Does this contribute to the area?
- How many people are employed?
- Have they plans for expansion?
- Have they plans to increase employment?
- What type of aid or grants was and is available to them?
- Have there been changes in any area since they have been established?
- What type of research was needed?
- What is their largest market?
- How do they market their product?
- How do they promote their product?
- What type of quality control do they use?
CAREERS OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD INDUSTRIES
- Food technology
- Food chemistry
- Food research
- Nutrition research
- Quality control
Careers under each of the headings above could be investigated under the following:
- type of employment available
- form of training required
- length of training
- type of awards for training
- further training.
1.3.2 FOOD COMMODITIES - FISH
Suggested approach to teaching a food topic, with examples of crosslinking
- To clarify the depth of treatment appropriate in 1.3.2 food commodities and to identify where cross-links may apply
- The percentage composition of nutrients of cooked white fish, oily fish and processed breaded fish and the nutritional significance of this
- Use of bar charts to compare the main nutrients in the different categories of fish and to compare fish with other protein foods.
(to stimulate discussion on the main nutrients in fish)
This bar chart compares the macronutrients in a portion (130 g) of two types of fish; grilled cod steaks and baked kippers, with a grilled lean pork chop (portion: 130 g).
The table below illustrates the amount of each nutrient in a similar portion of grilled cod steak, baked kippers and grilled lean pork chop (each portion = 100 g).
| ||White fish||Oily fish||Other protein food|
|Protein||27 g||33.2 g||25 g|
|Fat||1.2 g||14.8 g||8 g|
|Calcium||13 mg||83 mg||7 mg|
|Iron||0.5 mg||1.8 mg||1 mg|
CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIET
Fish is a valuable source of high biological value protein. It provides protein of a similar quality and amount to that found in lean meat. It is therefore valuable in the diet of children, adolescents, and pregnant and nursing mothers.
White fish contains only traces of fat and is therefore an excellent food for low-calorie diets. The fat contained in oily fish is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and is therefore useful in low-cholesterol diets. This fat is also very digestible. This, combined with the high amount of protein, makes fish an excellent food for the elderly and those recovering from illness. (1.2.4 The Irish diet, 1.3.3Meal management, and planning and 1.3.4 Foodpreparation and cooking processes)
- Availability: students could research the types of fish available in the different outlets in their locality and compare cost (2.2.1 Consumer choices)
- Students should be aware of what to look for in a good fish shop: hygienic practices, good turnover of product, good value, knowledgeable and helpful staff.
How to recognise fresh fish
- The eyes should be clear and shiny and look full
- The flesh should look plump and moist
- The skin should be moist and shiny
- Characteristic marks should be bright and prominent, for example orange spots on plaice
- There should be no unpleasant odour
- The scales should be tight
- The flesh of white fish fillets should be a really white colour, moist and plump-looking.
- Shellfish should have a clean, fresh smell
- Molluscs should not be open
- Crustaceans should be alive and very active.
Investigation of fish products
- Range of products available
- Check percentage fish content
- Compare nutritional value with fresh fish
- Compare costs.
(1.3.5 Food labelling as a source of consumer information)
Preparation of fish
- Preparation of round fish for cooking
- Skinning fish fillets
- Recognition of different cut
(1.3.4 Food preparation and cooking processes)
Storage of fish
- How fish deteriorates after catching
- How to store fish (short term) and the importance of storing at cool temperatures.
Principles underlying the cooking of fish and the application of these principles:
- The structure of fish and how this is affected by cooking
- The effects of overcooking
- The effects of heat on protein
- The effects of different methods of cooking on nutritive value
- Recommendation of suitable cooking methods.
(1.1.2 Properties of protein and 1.3.4 Food preparationand cooking processes)
- Identification of different methods used to preserve fish: canning, freezing, smoking, fish products (1.3.5 Foodprocessing and packaging)
- Preservatives commonly used in fish products. Identification of preservatives and reasons for use (1.3.6Food additives)
- Commercial freezing--underlying principle and methods of freezing fish and other foods (1.3.9 Preservation--commercial freezing).
HIGHER LEVEL ONLY
1.3.4 SENSORY EVALUATION AND SENSORY ANALYSIS
The materials below have been provided to assist students in the practical applications of sensory analysis. This is particularly important in area of practice E -- Comparative analysis, where students will be expected to critically evaluate dishes or products and develop the skills and language of sensory analysis for the completion of the food studies assignments.
Food choices are influenced by economic, social and cultural factors as well as, nutrition and convenience. However, sensory evaluation is important in determining the acceptability of food to the consumer. Sensory evaluation is dependent on the five senses, on the food itself, and on the person evaluating it. Of these, taste and smell are most commonly associated with the appreciation of food. Flavour is a mixture of taste, mouth feel, and smell.
Taste is sensed by the taste buds on the tongue--sweet, sour, salt, and bitter.
- Sensory descriptors for taste include: sweet, acid, bitter, bland, salty, sour, spicy, tangy, tasteless, creamy, burnt, stale
- Saliva helps taste by dissolving and diluting substances and by controlling temperature. Dry substances cannot be tasted. Crystals of sugar or salt will not arouse a taste sensation until dissolved by saliva
- Natural and synthetic flavours are used to replace those lost during food processing. Monosodium glutamate is used as a flavour-enhancer in processed foods.
Mouth feel is where the nerves in the skin of the mouth are stimulated by thermal or chemical reactions--coldness of ice cream, painful burning sensation of chilli.
- Mouthfeel refers to how the food feels in the mouth-brittle, chewy, crisp, dry, fizzy, greasy, flaky, juicy, lumpy, smooth, sticky, slimy, warm, cold, hot, crumbly, tender
- Processed foods have ingredients added to improve mouth feel:
--gums and starches add creaminess to dried soups
--modified starches result in increased smoothness in processed foods
--humectants such as sugar syrups, honey, glycerol and sorbitol help retain moistness in cakes
--fats with extra emulsifying agents allow an increase in the water added to a cake batter, which in turn allows
more sugar to be added, which gives a sweeter cake, capable of retaining moisture and mouth feel for longer periods.
Smell evaluates the aroma of the food.
- This olfactory sense is important in the enjoyment gained from eating food. A pleasant aroma makes food appetising, and smell is important in the appreciation of flavour
- The nose is a more sensitive chemical receptor than the tongue. However, smells are difficult to measure by physical or chemical means, and there is no satisfactory definition or classification of smells or explanation of how they are distinguished by the olfactory organs
- To arouse a sensation of smell, a substance must be in a gaseous state
- Smell is useful in detecting fresh, rancid or poisonous food.
Texture refers to the consistency of food as perceived by the eyes and by the senses of the skin and muscles of the mouth.
- Sensory descriptors for texture include hard, viscous, elastic, sticky, chewy, gritty, grainy, fibrous, flaky, crispy, nutty, smooth, and tough
- High-quality and well-prepared food can be crisp, tender, crunchy, juicy, creamy, or soft
- Poor-quality food might be greasy, rubbery, slimy, lumpy, or tough
- Textural contrast is an important aspect of menu planning
- When foods have a bland flavour, texture becomes the more important sensory attribute in stimulating the appetite.
The materials below have been provided to assist students in the practical applications of sensory analysis. This is particularly important in area of practice E--Comparative analysis, where students will be expected to critically evaluate dishes or products and develop the skills and language of sensory analysis for the completion of the food studies assignments.
Sight evaluates the appearance and colour of foods and is an important factor in the initial choice of food.
- Sensory descriptors for appearance include appetising, moist, mouth-watering, attractive, colourful, red, green, clear, cloudy, soggy, dry, fresh, and bright
- The shape, size, colour and surface appearance of food all influence the consumer and determine whether they like or reject a food
- Sight is used to judge food quality and freshness, for example fruit, fish
- Some foods lose colour in processing and have to be artificially coloured to be acceptable to the consumer, for example peas, smoked fish
- Colours are associated with acceptance or rejection of foods, for example a colour acceptable in some foods would be unacceptable in others, such as green in vegetables, but not in meat; mould in blue cheese, but not in bread
- Certain flavours are associated with colour, such as strawberry (red).
Hearing considers the sounds made by food during preparation and consumption.
- Coffee percolating; corn popping; jam bubbling; sizzle of frying food; snap, crackle and pop of breakfast cereals; fizz of drinks.
This involves the measurement, analysis and interpretation of organoleptic properties in food, such as flavour, texture, appearance, odour, and aftertaste. Sensory analysis involves determining a product's characteristics by using the five senses.
Sensory analysis tests
There are a number of sensory analysis tests, and students may choose whichever tests are appropriate to the particular food assignment being carried out.
Tests designed to meet the requirements described above are carried out under controlled conditions, and results are analysed. Three types of tests are used in sensory analysis.
1. Preference tests are used to determine which product is preferred or if products are acceptable:
--Paired preference test: Two samples are presented, and the taster is asked to identify which one they prefer
--Hedonic ranking test: One or more samples are ranked on a five-point or nine-point verbal or facial scale, which indicates the degree of liking for a product.
2. Difference tests are used to detect small differences between samples. The direction of the difference may also be identified:
--Simple paired test: Two samples are presented. State whether they are the same or different
--Paired comparison test: Pairs of samples are presented. State the difference between the samples with regard to a particular characteristic, for example saltiness, sweetness, toughness. (Which is sweeter? tougher?). Useful if comparing home-made and commercial samples of the same food
--Triangle test: Three samples are presented, two of which are exactly the same. Identify the sample that is different. This is used to find out if people can tell the difference between foods. Useful where there are small differences, for example comparing the amount of sugar in foods or when comparing two brands of the same food, for example beans, margarine.
3. Grading or quality tests are used to rank specific organoleptic characteristics of foods:
--Ranking test: This test is used to sort a choice of foods (usually between two and twelve samples) in order. They can be ranked
(a) according to the food that is preferred (hedonic ranking) or
(b) for one particular characteristic, for example colour, flavour, tenderness. Useful for food manufacturers when modifying ingredients in foods, for example amount of sugar.
--Rating test: A rating test is used to find out
(a) how much someone likes or dislikes a food (hedonic rating scale) or
(b) to compare two or more foods for different aspects of quality. The scales are usually five, seven or nine-point scales.
|An example of a five-point hedonic verbal scale||An example of a seven-point verbal scale on moistness|
|1. Like a lot||1. Very moist|
|2. Like a little||2. Moist|
|3. Neither like nor dislike||3. Slightly moist|
|4. Dislike a little||4. Neither moist nor dry|
|5. Dislike a lot||5. Slightly dry|
| ||6. Dry|
| ||7. Very dry|
To avoid error, conditions for testing should be controlled:
- Timing of tests: mid-morning or mid-afternoon (tasters will have better taste sensitivity). Do not eat strongly flavoured food 30 minutes before tasting
- All foods should be at the same temperature
- There should be a similar quantity of food in each sample
- Provide rinsing water for each taster
- Containers should be of identical size, shape, and colour (white or colourless)
- Coding of samples should not give any clues or information about the test, for example, ABC or 123
- Samples can be sequenced
--randomly (useful for large number of samples)
--balanced (useful for triangle tests) - every possible order occurs an equal number of times AAB ABA ABB BAA BAB BBA
A = control
B = sample
--using a combination of random and balanced.
The results of tasting sessions needed to be presented and analysed to identify what changes need to be made to the product. However, since each person will make his or her own individual judgement, it is not always consistent.
The results can be presented on:
- a pie chart
- a histogram
- a star diagram.
Star diagrams are used by the food industry to describe the appearance and taste of food. It is easy to compare products, as differences are quickly observed on the star diagram. Several factors can be compared at once, such as the sweetness and crispness of a biscuit. From the star diagram a product profile can be written, describing how it looks and tastes.
To use a star diagram:
- Draw a graph with eight lines, as illustrated
- Label each line with a sensory descriptor that describes the food or product, for example crisp, sweet, tough, soft, smooth
- Mark each line on the graph with a scale of 0 to 5
- Taste the food and give each word a score out of 5. (0 = not at all, 3 = all right, 5 = very...)
- Mark each score on the graph, and draw the lines to form a star diagram to show the product profile.
The star diagram below illustrates the results obtained with an apple.
"The apple is green with a little red, quitecrisp and very juicy, very sweet but just alittle sour, very crunchy and not soft."
1.3.5 FOOD PROCESSING AND PACKAGING
PROFILE OF FOOD THAT UNDERGOESEXTENSIVE PROCESSING - WHEATFLOUR
Wheat, like all cereals, is essentially a cultivated grass. It originated more than 10,000 years ago. Within the following thousand years it was discovered that if the grain was crushed it became more palatable. Milling had been introduced. Roughly 520 tonnes are grown each year. It can be grown in a wide variety of climates; the type of wheat depends on the climate.
Winter wheat is grown in temperate climates, such as our own. In Ireland it is planted in autumn and harvested in the late summer.
Spring wheat is usually grown in March and harvested in September. Its shorter season gives lower yields, and consequently a higher protein (gluten**) content.
**Gluten: The two proteins glutenin and gliadin convert to a substance called gluten when moistened. Gluten is essential in the making of bread and cakes, because of its elastic properties. This allows the dough to expand and hold the bubbles of air, that are produced by the raising agent. In the heat of the oven the gluten coagulates, and the baked product sets in its risen, aerated state.
Most of the wheat used for milling in Ireland is grown here. The flour millers import the remainder they require from abroad, mostly from EU countries: Britain, France, Germany, and Spain. Some is imported from Canada and the United States.
THE STRUCTURE OF A WHEAT GRAIN
Wheat is a tiny egg-shaped seed. At the top is a tuft of hairs called the "beard", and at the other end, where the grain was attached to the stalk, is the germ. The edible part of the grain consists of three layers:
- The bran: This consists of layers of cellulose, which are indigestible but important in the diet, as they provide roughage. Bran is rich in B vitamins, particularly niacin. It also contains calcium, iron and phosphorus.
- The endosperm: This is the food reserve of the grain. It consists of an outer aleurone layer, which contains protein. The remainder consists mainly of starch. It also contains the protein gluten and B group vitamins.
- The germ: This is the most nutritious part of the grain and contains all the nutrients needed by the young plant to germinate and grow. It is rich in protein, fat, iron, B group vitamins, and vitamin E. It is usually separated from the rest of the grain during milling. It is sold as wheatgerm.
THE AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF WHEAT
|12.0%||2.0%||65.0%||9.0%||B group, E||Calcium, iron||13.0%|
THE MILLING OF WHEAT INTO FLOUR
A modern mill consists of three main sections:
- The silo
- The screen room
- The mill.
1. The silo: When the grain arrives at the mill, it is weighed and stored in large concrete bins called silos. If the wheat contains more than 15 or 16% moisture it is dried; otherwise it would deteriorate very quickly.
2. The screen room: This is where impurities are removed from the wheat. Here it passes through:
- a separator, which is a coarse sieve that removes large particles, followed by a fine sieve, which allows fine impurities, such as soil and dust, to pass through
- a de-stoner, which removes any stones
- disc separators, which separate other cereals
- a scourer, which cleans the grain
- magnets, which remove any metal objects
- conditioning is the process by which moisture may be added to the grain, if it is too dry, in order to make it suitable for rollers
- blending involves combining different types of wheat to give the required mixture for milling. This is called "grist".
3. The mill: The grain passes over rollers and through sieves during the milling process:
- Break roller: These are ridged rollers that revolve at high speed in opposite directions. They peel the grain open.
- Sifting: The open grain passes through ten to twelve rotating sieves placed one below the other. The coarsest mesh is on the top, working down to the finest on the bottom. At each stage of sieving, the rough material is removed, to be passed again through rollers to further break it down.
- The purifiers: These use blasts of air to separate bran from the other particles.
- Reducing rollers: The grains of endosperm at this stage are still quite large, and need to be ground down further. This is done by passing them through a series of smooth steel rollers until a fine flour is produced.
- Packing: The flour and the bran are collected, each in its own channel. They are brought to storage bins or to the packing stations. The flour is filled into 1 kg or 2 kg paper bags for household use or into sacks for small bakeries. It is also despatched to large bakeries by bulk tanker.
Calcium carbonate, bleaching agents and improvers such as vitamin C are added.
From the time the grain enters the mill until it is distributed to the customer, it is untouched by hand. Samples of the product are tested in a laboratory at various stages to make sure the flour maintains a high standard.
Extraction rate means the percentage of the whole grain left in the flour.
Wheatmeal or brown flour 80-90%
White flour 70-75%
PROFILE OF AN ADDED-VALUE FOOD - CARTON OF FRESH IRISH-MADE TOMATO SOUP
- The company operates under the control of the Department of Health and Children.
- It has a HACCP system. Link: 1.3.10 Food safety and hygiene.
- It operates to the standards of the British Retail Consortium Standard, which is more stringent than ISO9000. Link: 1.3.10 Food safety and hygiene
- The process used is the stage gate process. This is a systematic product development process. It is like a road map, driving a new product from idea to launch.
SOURCES OF MAIN INGREDIENTS
Vegetables and herbs, tomatoes, onions, celery, carrot, oregano, basil and bay.
These are used mainly fresh. They are supplied from farms approved by An Bord Glas and delivered to vegetable suppliers. Here they are prepared, washed and diced and delivered the same day.
OTHER ADDED INGREDIENTS
Seasonings, flavourings, thickening agent.
These are tested in the onsite sensory laboratory according to a pre-agreement specification list.
PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS
Ingredients are then despatched in batch quantities to the process area from the stores. They are then weighed in controlled quantities with predetermined tolerances.
STAGES IN PRODUCTION
- Vegetables are pre-cooked to soften them
- Blended to make smooth base
- Transferred to finish kettle where thickening agents are added
- Cooked in a controlled manner with defined time, temperature and agitation
- Cooled, packed and pasteurised in the package
- Tasted and tested
- Chilled in blast chiller
- Shrink-wrapped, boxed and palleted
- Despatched under chilled conditions.
Link to 1.3.7 Food legislation
- Name of soup
- Description of soup
- Name, address and telephone number of manufacturer
- Heating and microwave cooking instructions
- Bar code
- List of ingredients
- Nutrition information
- Storage and handling instructions
- 'Suitable for freezing' symbol
- 'Microwave symbol'
This product is tested at various stages to ensure a high standard of quality.
Energy 239 kg
Protein 1.5 g
Carbohydrates 8.6 g
Fat 4.8 g
Fibre 1.15 g
Sodium 0.4 g
1.3.10 FOOD SAFETY AND HYGIENE
HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP)
The letters HACCP stand for 'hazard analysis critical control point'. This is a system that can be used by food businesses to ensure that their products do not put customers at risk. It looks for and prevents potential problems before they happen.
Its benefits as a control system are:
- potential hazards are identified before there is a problem
- control efforts are concentrated at the stages where the risk is potentially highest
- the process can be controlled immediately by the food business.
HOW IT WORKS
- Points during the production of a product where potential hazards may occur are identified.
- The risk of a particular hazard happening is analysed, and the implication for consumer safety is considered.
- Critical control points are identified.
- Controls are implemented, production is monitored, and action is taken if necessary.
- The HACCP is reviewed regularly and particularly when the food operation is altered in any way.
SETTING UP A HACCP SYSTEM
- A HACCP team is formed. It should be made up of people who are familiar with the business's food processes and products. Members of the team need to have training in food hygiene and in some cases will need expert knowledge in microbiology.
- The HACCP team draws up a flow chart showing all aspects of the food operation, from raw materials through processing and packaging to storage and preparation for distribution.
- The team identifies the potential hazards associated with the food at all stages, from the raw materials to the point at which the food is eaten.
- A risk assessment is made, to estimate how likely it is that a problem might occur.
- The team decides what steps should be taken to control the process to remove or reduce any physical, chemical or microbiological risks. These are control points, some of which will be identified as critical control points (CCPs).
- For each control point the team recommends: --what is to be done --when it is to be done --who is to do it.
Particular attention will be paid to critical control points.
- The recommended monitoring and controls are carried out.
- Records of the HACCP process and the control monitored at the CCP for each batch of food must be kept, to show that the system is being implemented.
- Action is taken at the control points if necessary.
- The HACCP system must be evaluated from time to time, for example annually. If any aspect of the food operation is altered, the system must also be reviewed and altered accordingly.
FLOW CHART FOR CREATING A HACCP SYSTEM
- HACCP team is set up
- Produce a flow chart to show all the processes of manufacture
- Identify the processes that may be a hazard
- Carry out a risk assessment
- Decide where critical control points need to be identified
- Decide the types of control that are needed (i.e. physical, chemical, or microbiological)
- Implement the control
- Monitor (i.e. observe, monitor, and record)
- Take action if necessary
- Evaluate the system from time to time, especially after any changes in the operation
APPLYING A HACCP SYSTEM TO A FOOD OPERATION IN A SCHOOL SETTING
|1. Purchase of ingredients|
- High-risk (ready-to-eat) foods contaminated with food-poisoning bacteria or toxins
- Buy from reputable suppliers only
- Check temperature of chilled foods at point of purchase
|2. Transport of food to school|
- Rise in storage temperature--leading to growth of food-poisoning bacteria
- Contamination of food by foodpoisoning bacteria because of poor handling and storage
- Store foods at safe temperatures until last possible moment (in fridge). Wrap well, and transport in suitable containers
|3. Storage of food before use|
- Growth of food poisoning bacteria and toxins on high-risk foods
- Further contamination
- Store high-risk foods at safe temperatures
- Store wrapped and labelled with correct `use by' date
- Rotate foods, and use by recommended date
- Contamination of high-risk foods
- Growth of food-poisoning bacteria
- Wash hands before handling food
- Limit any exposure to room temperature during preparation
- Prepare with clean equipment, and use this for high-risk foods only
- Keep raw and cooked foods separate
- Survival of food-poisoning bacteria
- Cook rolled joints, chicken and re-formed meats, e.g. burgers, so that the thickest part reaches at least 75°C
- Growth of any surviving food-poisoning bacteria
- Production of poisons by bacteria
- Contamination with food-poisoning bacteria
- Cool foods as quickly as possible
- Don't leave out at room temperatures to cool
- Cool to chill temperatures quickly
- Growth of food-poisoning bacteria
- Production of poisons by bacteria
- Keep food hot, at or above 63°C
- Cool fully before transporting
- Package or wrap well
- Refrigerate as soon as possible
- Survival of food-poisoning bacteria
|10. Chilled Storage|
- Growth of food-poisoning bacteria
- Keep temperature at right level
- Label high-risk foods use by date
- Growth of food-poisoning bacteria
- Production of poisons by bacteria
- Cold-service foods: serve as soon as possible after removing from the refrigerator to prevent them getting warm
- Hot foods: serve quickly to prevent them cooling down
ORDINARY \ HIGHER LEVEL
1.3.10 HACCP SAMPLE BASIC CLEANING CHART HOME ECONOMICS ROOM
|Area/equipment||Cleaning method||Minimum frequency||People responsible|
- Use detergent, sterilant, hot water, clean cloth
- Use appropriate oven-cleaners
- Wipe down all surfaces and spillages daily, using hot water and detergent
- Clean tiles at back of oven daily
- Hot water and food-grade detergent or sterilant
- After each cooking session
- Hot water, detergent, and floor mop
- Clean spillages immediately
- Sweep and wash floor as often as necessary during the day
- Hot water, food grade detergent and sterilant
- Hot water and detergent
- Check for spillages daily
- Clean completely weekly
- Clean splashes daily
- Clean walls weekly
- Use hot water and detergent or sterilant
- Clean spillages immediately
- Clean completely weekly; note door and seals especially
- Defrost as necessary
- Check temperatures at least daily
- Use hot water and food-grade detergent or sterilant
- Clean spillages immediately
- Check for damaged packaging
- Check seals daily
- Defrost as necessary
- Check temperatures
- Use detergent or sterilant
- Disinfect drains
- Daily, or when possible contamination occurs
|Stores and ingredients cupboard|
- Sweep floor daily
- Check for spillages
- Use clean cloth and detergent on shelving
|Bins and refuse|
- Empty bin to outside refuse area after every meal preparation and serving
- Disinfect bin
2. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
2.1 THE PURPOSE OF MANAGEMENT
A general definition of management is planning for and implementing the use of resources to meet demands. Management is both affected by and affects the environment and the system within which it functions. It is not a rigid set of rules and actions but a set of flexible responses to a particular situation and is constantly under review.
The purpose of management is to provide a framework for making choices and taking conscious actions that are meant to reach goals related to the quality of our life and that of others. It influences the quality of life of the individual and the family through the way that resources are directed towards goals. The purpose of resource management is therefore to:
- improve the quality of the individual or family
- improve management practices within the household
- provide a basic tool for achieving desired goals and purposes by using resources to advantage.
The main literature on management deals with the management of organisations; however, similar rules apply to the management of the home. The systems approach to management originated in the United States in the late 1930s and became more developed in the 1950s. Many of the classic approaches to management used previous to that had ignored the role of the external environment and tended to concentrate on aspects of the organisation rather than viewing it as a whole. A parallel
can be drawn between those previous approaches and the previous approach to family resource management. Family resource management was in the past approached as a series of tasks, each requiring individual attention. For example, shopping for food and cooking was viewed as either one or two tasks. Looking after vulnerable members of the family was yet another task, all needing individual attention. Instead of planning for each situation individually, another approach is to provide an overall system.
TYPES OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
This overall system, for example the family resourcemanagement system, looks at all the tasks and all the available resources, then assigns priorities to them according to values, immediate needs or events. This is done through communication and decision-making by all the people concerned. After implementation, the outcomes of these decisions are evaluated and reviewed regularly.
FAMILY AS A MANAGERIAL UNIT
Viewing the family as a system, there are two principal subsystems: the personal sub-system and themanagerial sub-system. The personal sub-system provides values and goal orientations. Each individual will have their own hierarchy of what they consider to be important goals; but for the managerial system to be effective there have to be agreed goals and priorities, so that the finite resources of the family can be best utilised for the benefit of all.
2.1.1 THE COMPONENTS OF MANAGEMENT
There are three stages or components in the family resource management system and decision-makingand communication,either by an individual or by the group, is an essential aspect of each stage in the system.
FAMILY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
(i) Inputs: There are two aspects to `inputs':
Demands include needs,wants, values, goals, and events
Goals are derived from values. Values and goals can be adjusted according to a realistic assessment of needs, wants, resources, conditions, and possibilities. In the family system there has to be agreement on what the main priorities are. Applying a value system allows people to access demands, needs and wants and to set those priorities. These values and the eventual outcome of the priorities set are then constantly reviewed and revised in accordance with the feedback from the `outputs'.
Resources including human, material and environmental In most family circumstances, resources are limited and how these will be allocated depends on the goals that have been given priority. These goals, on the other hand, depend on the values of the individuals in the group and should be agreed through discussion.
(ii) Throughputs: This is the action part of the system and consists of two processes:
Planning: Planning includes clarifying goals, settingstandards, and sequencing activities.
Implementing: This is taking action, controlling and adjusting the action to suit the needs of the situation. In the management system there has to be constant controlling by checking the effectiveness of the course of action taken and making adjustments to improve effectiveness.
This is where all the action takes place, and success cannot be achieved if there is not agreement initially on the goals and how resources will be allocated in order to achieve those goals.
(iii) Output:This includes the responses to demands met (goals achieved) and resources used and changes in values or in standards. This is where the evaluation takes place and where the success or failure of the initial strategy is assessed. The results of this analysis and evaluation then influence further decision-making.
FEEDBACK to the `INPUTS' stage is essential to evaluating and making the necessary adjustments to goals and reviewing resources.
In the family resource management system, decision-making and communication, either by an individual or by the group, is an essential aspect of each stage in the system.
(i) Decisions have to be made and agreed about which goals will be given priority. Each person in the family may have their own sub-system, with their own wants, needs, and demands, which will influence how they will wish to give priority to the goals of the family group. However, for the family resource management system to be successful, goals have to be agreed so that resources can be used effectively for the good of all, and this can only be done through proper communication and decision-making.
(ii) If goals have not already been set it is difficult to move on to clarifying those goals and to set the required standards at this stage. Effective implementation can only be achieved if there is agreement firstly on goals and secondly on how resources will be used to achieve those goals.
(iii) This is the evaluation aspect of the process. The original decisions made at the first stage have to be evaluated and reassessed in the light of changing needs. What was initially a main priority may not be so important later, and this information must be used to influence future decisions. This information is then used as feedback to help in the formation of new decisions about the next set of goals and again how resources can be allocated to achieve them.
INTEGRATING THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO A PLAN OF WORK
The first management task that the students are required to undertake is the planning, implementation and evaluation of Food assignment 1. It is essential to theintegrated nature of the revised syllabus that students apply the theory of management from the resource management section of the syllabus and the associated language in their approach to the food assignments. To do this effectively it would therefore be necessary to cover the theory of management first.
Below is a brief outline of how the students might incorporate the management system in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the food assignments. This is an example of how the system could be applied, and students themselves would be expected to fill in the details to a standard appropriate for Leaving Certificate. Ordinary level students can concentrate more on the decision-making at each stage in the management process rather than the inputs, throughputs, and outputs, which are essential for Higher level only.
Food assignment 1: Special requirements (dietary, economical and practical) should be considered when planning meals for the elderly.
Identify and elaborate on some of these considerations under the above three headings. Bearing in mind these requirements, investigate a range of main courses suitable for lunch for two elderly people.
Prepare, cook and serve two of the main courses you have identified.
Evaluate the assignment in terms of
(b) implementation and
(c) the specific requirements of the assignment.
|Food assignment||Resource management|
Analysis and investigation
- What demands have to be considered?
- Analyse the needs of elderly people under the headings in the assignment: --dietary --economical --practical
- List the values that are important here
- Indicate how these values may affect the diet of the elderly
- Considering the available resources (total food budget, skills, equipment, etc.), investigate a range of main courses, appropriate to needs
- State clearly why the chosen dishes are appropriate to the resources and needs of the elderly
- Set goals: What types of food preparation and cost are economically and practically realistic to suggest for elderly people?
- Assign priorities to the main goals
- Clarify goals: Indicate considerations in decision-making when selecting the main course dish and planning the making of the dish
- Investigate: costing and available equipment
- Cooking skills required
- Time available and time sequence
- Presentation and serving
- Implement a plan to cook the dish, following the time sequence
- Check the appropriateness of the cooking methods chosen, and the equipment being used, for elderly people
- Adjust if necessary
Formulate a plan
- Clarify goals: set standards and sequence activities
- Decision-making on choices of dish
Implement the Plan
- Taking action or controlling
- Were the initial goals achieved?
- Was the best use made of resources?
- Did the dish satisfy the demands: --dietary--economical--practical?
- Did it fulfil all the essential criteria: --nutritionally suited to an elderly person?
- Was the dish palatable and well presented?
- Could the dish be simplified?
- Are the cooking methods suitable for an elderly person?
- Did you apply good hygiene and safety practices?
- Recommendations and Feedback
- What recommendations would be made for further dishes for an elderly person?
- What changes would you make?
- Could the dish be improved nutritionally?
- Responses to demands
- Changes in resources
2.1.3 MANAGEMENT OF HOUSEHOLD
THE HOUSEHOLD AS A FINANCIAL UNIT WITHIN THE ECONOMY
In examining the importance of the household as a financial unit, it is necessary to place it in the context of overall national expenditure and to view consumer expenditure as a percentage of gross national product. National expenditure is the sum of expenditure by consumers, firms, the Government and foreign industries on domestically produced services and goods.
Looking at gross domestic product (GDP) for 1995, the estimate of the Central Statistics Office (CSO) was £38.6 billion for total GDP. By GDP is meant the value of all goods and services produced in the country, regardless of the nationality of the owners of the factors of production. Consumer expenditure for the same period was £22 billion, accounting for 57% of GDP.
The most recent household budget survey (HBS), that of 1994/95, calculated the average household expenditure per household. This survey provides the best source of information about the spending behaviour of the approximately 1.1 million households in the country. A household is defined as a single person or group of people who regularly reside together in the same accommodation and who share the same catering arrangements.
HOUSEHOLD INCOME WITH REGARD TO SOCIAL FACTORS,
FOR EXAMPLE, INCOME
Using the HBS as the primary source of information, the total average weekly expenditure for 1994/5 was £311.75. This was slightly higher in urban households than in rural households. Those with lower incomes spent a higher percentage of their total income on food, fuel and light and on housing (except when rent-free).
EXTRACT FROM HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY, 1994/5
|Social group of|
|Total weeklyhousehold income|
on clothing and
on fuel and light
*These social groups are based on the occupational category of a reference person in each household. For example,
social group 1 includes those in the professions. The pattern, as can be seen in this table, is that food accounts for a smaller percentage of total spending in the wealthier social groups.
2.1.5 HOUSEHOLD TECHNOLOGY -- CONSUMER REPORT ON AN APPLIANCE
Students could use this type of consumer report, either individually or in groups, to investigate any of the electrical appliances.
A responsible consumer will make informed choices when selecting goods and services.
You have been given the task of selecting and purchasing a food-mixer for use in a family kitchen.
Complete the following consumer report on the observations that you made while visiting the electrical shop to select and purchase the appliance.
2.2.2 CONSUMER RESPONSIBILITY
The term `pollution' refers to all forms of pollution, including noise pollution. The damaging effects of exposure to excessive noise levels coming from amplification equipment used at discos and clubs on the hearing of young people or from having the volume too high on stereos etc., should be covered.
OUTLINE OF THE CONSUMER REPORT
Name three brands or companies that manufacture the appliance
Find out the cost of:
(a) a basic model _______________
(b) a model at the top of the range _______________
Give a brief account of the main features found on the basic model
What extra features were available on the more expensive models?
What quality or safety symbols were on the appliances that you examined?
Did the terms and conditions of the guarantee vary between brands? If yes, give details.
In your opinion, which model is the best buy?
Give three reasons for making this decision.
What precautions should you take when purchasing this appliance to ensure that you would have redress if a fault occurred later?
3.1.6 THE FAMILY AS A CARING UNIT
One of the central tasks of families is `caring': caring for partners, caring for children, and caring for parents.
This is a three or four generation span of care. An important distinction has to be made here between caringabout--which is about love, feelings, and emotions; and caring for--which is an active form of work: a `labour of love' which involves looking after someone. Normally this care process falls upon the women in the family, although it is usually invisible.
The commitment to care and decisions on whose role and responsibility it is are usually complicated. It may be negotiated over long periods or it may be implied by family circumstances, for example a family member living in the home. Sometimes there is an unwillingness to engage in or to commit oneself to caring, especially when a particular individual is not given a choice.
Role conflict can cause stress on the caring issue. Although there are signs that some men are playing a small role in it, research has shown that the caring process is closely linked in modern society to what it means to be a woman. It is an extension of this "social mothering" that makes women more prone to having to look after the array of people within the family--and also outside it.
Often the array of family members who will be carers is narrowly defined: usually from spouse to daughter, to daughter-in-law and son. There is a hierarchy of care: sons and daughters define their care duties primarily to their own children and partners and will take on the care of elderly relatives only as a secondary role.
Older people usually do not want to give up their independence and so are looked after at a distance. Research strongly suggests that there is a great deal of care taking place among families today. Economically, both household partners must work to ensure the family's financial security, thus putting pressure on the "caring family". Both family partners are forced into the "caring
situation" not by choice but of necessity. Men are likely to play changing roles in "caring" and to broaden their previously defined role to include their partner's elderly parents.
THE ROLE OF OLDER PEOPLE
In a society that places a high value on youth, vitality, and physical attractiveness, older people tend to become invisible. In recent years we have seen changes in attitudes towards old age. Older people are unlikely to recover the full authority and prestige they used to have according to elders of the communities in ancient societies. Yet as they have come to comprise a larger proportion of the population, older people have acquired independence and more political influence than they used to have. Activistgroups have also started to fight against ageism--discrimination against people on the grounds of their age--seeking to encourage a positive view of old age and older people, to re-establish their importance and independence within the family and to reduce generationconflict that could occur as a result of feeling dependent and useless, and to prevent loss of status. Ageism is regarding or behaving negatively towards someone merely because they are of a particular age. On a broader scale, to regard `the old' as a problem group is in itself implicitly ageist.
Generally, young people do not greatly differ from their parents in their attitudes to fundamental social andpolitical matters. Surveys on the attitudes of teenagers show that they like their parents, get on reasonably well with them, and are generally satisfied with life. However, young people in contemporary societies are in a different structural position from adults: they have less power and authority. They are also in a situation of learning and transition.These factors can lead to some tension andconflict between some young people and parents, the aged, teachers and other "authority figures".
ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT TEACHING OF A TOPIC
- Brainstorm topic
- Pair discussion
- Small-group discussion
- Class discussion
- Debriefing and reporting back
- Set homework assignment
Tools for stimulating brainstorm and discussion:
- People: visitors, speakers
- Interviews and questionnaires
- Newspaper articles and books
- Television, radio and videos
- Case studies
- Teaching packs
- Reports and statistics
EXAMPLES OF CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY 1
Gran has recently moved in with her son Tom, her daughter-in-law Mary, and their three children: Paul (15), Sarah (13) and Niamh (8). She has her own bedroom and bathroom. She has dinner with the family each evening and watches television with them at night. Gran is in the house alone until 5 p.m. each day as Tom and Mary are at work and the children are at school. Gran, who is 75 years old, has a good sense of humour but likes to express her opinion.
- Outline the roles you would expect each person to play in this household.
- In your opinion what are the responsibilities of each member in this family.
- List areas of conflict that might arise from time to time in this household between:
- Gran and Mary
- Gran and Tom
- Mary and Tom
- Gran and the children.
- How could these areas of conflict be avoided or dealt with?
- Mention some areas of change in family life since Gran was a child.
CASE STUDY 2
Séamus is a 15-year-old schoolboy. He wants to go to the end-of-term disco in a nearby town. His mother is anxious about letting him go, but his father allows him to go, provided he can collect him at 1 a.m. On the night of the disco when his father arrives to collect Séamus he is not at the agreed place but arrives thirty minutes later. His father notices a smell of cigarettes from his breath. His father is annoyed, as he is offered no explanation or apology.
- Role-play the conservation that might take place in the car on the way home.
- Role-play the situation on arrival home to meet his mother.
- How could any conflict that arises have been avoided or better dealt with?
ELECTIVE 1: HOME DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT
4.1.1 HOUSING STYLES
Historical development of housing styles in Ireland from the 19th century onwards
At the beginning of the twentieth century, 70% of Irish people lived in the countryside and 30% lived in cities and towns.
The most common house in the countryside was the one storey `thatched cottage'. The walls of these cottages were thick and solid. The windows were small, which prevented a lot of light getting in. The roofs were thatched with reeds, which grew along riverbanks. Sometimes straw or hay was used. Many cottages had only two rooms: the kitchen, entered through the half-door, and a bedroom to the right of it. The top half of the half-door was usually left open to let in light, and the lower half closed to keep children in, and animals and poultry out.
The kitchen was the centre of the house. It had an open turf fire at one end. In some houses there was a small room up under the thatch where children slept. Some of the family slept on a settle in the kitchen, which was used as a fireside bench during the day. More prosperous farmers had cottages that had an extra room, called the parlour. This room was used only on special occasions. Better-off farmers lived in two-storey stone houses. These had a slated roof and at least five rooms.
The wealthy landowners lived in big estate houses. Because Ireland was a poor country, very few big houses were built in the early part of the twentieth century. There were a number of plain art Deco houses, with flat roofs built. Not until the end of the Second World War did life in the countryside begin to change. The main reason for this was the rural electrification scheme, which the Government introduced in 1946. With the introduction of housing grants, many of the cottages began to change. Some two-storey houses were built. Thatched roofs were replaced with slates. Extra rooms were added. Some people moved into new Post War single-storey and two-storey houses, which they built nearby. The old cottage was used as a byre or storehouse. Many of these can be seen today in the countryside.
Most Irish towns were small at the beginning of the twentieth century and the houses were built around the main streets. These were either terraced cottages or two-storey stone houses. They mainly housed working people. In the cities, many poor people lived in tenements. These were large city centre houses, mainly Georgian terraces, which were originally owned by wealthy families who had moved to live in newly built houses in the fashionable districts. The large houses were divided up, and rooms were let to poor families. Most could afford only one room.
In the 1930s the Government began to give grants to local authorities to pay for council housing. These houses were built on the outskirts of towns and cities. They were mainly two storey brick houses with plaster walls. Land was too expensive in city centres for single houses. People who did not want to move away from city centres were rehoused in blocks of three-storey flats with deck access. These flats had usually two bedrooms and a bathroom. In the1960s some people felt that high tower blocks of flats were a solution to housing shortages. Only one of these developments was carried out, at Ballymun on the north side of Dublin. These flats were not popular with families with small children and are now being demolished.
Private developers built many housing estates. These houses were either detached or semi-detached with at least three bedrooms. In the cities, suburban development occurred to the detriment of the inner city. Quite a number of Georgian tenements crumbled or were knocked down. Nineteen-century artisan cottages still remain in parts of the cities, where many have added extensions to give more room. They still retain the same features, with a door in the centre and two living-rooms opening off it.
ORDINARY LEVEL / HIGHER LEVEL
POPULAR HOUSING STYLES IN IRELAND TODAY
Today only 43% of Ireland's population live in the countryside. The other 57% could be classified as urban dwellers.
Many of the houses that existed at the beginning of the twentieth century still remain. Because of new building materials, timber, and paint, many have changed in appearance. Some have extensions or larger windows and are modernised in different ways. The bungalow is normally the type of new house found in the countryside today. Particularly popular is the dormer Bungalow, which is spacious and yet blends fairly well aesthetically into the countryside. Here and there in the countryside we see mock-Tudor and mock-Georgian houses. Planning permission is granted only where house designs fit in to the locality. In tourist areas, new traditional style cottages have been erected. Some have thatch laid over their tiled roofs.
Many of the old stone town-houses still remain today. Some are painted with bright-coloured paint. Others have been converted into shops. The occupants of these have moved out to live in suburbia, new housing estates, or bungalows. Fewer people live over businesses, although this is now being encouraged in the inner city.
There has been a long tradition in Ireland of home ownership. The suburbs of towns and cities have developed so much that they are now referred to as urban sprawl. Detached, semi-detached and terraced estate houses are very popular.
In the city centres, local authority flats with pitched roofs and balconies have been built. There has also been considerable development of apartment complexes.
Social, cultural, economic and environmental factors that influence the choice of housing styles
- Income and employment
- Location - rural or urban
- Landscape of area
- Personal choice
- Number in family
- Interests and hobbies
- Family member with disability
- Local planning regulations.
ELECTIVE 2: TEXTILES, FASHION AND DESIGN
5.1 CONTEMPORARY CLOTHING AND FASHION
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL INFLUENCES ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CLOTHING
First and Second World Wars
People in the public eye e.g., pop stars and film stars
Women going outside the home to work
Fashion houses and designers
Emancipation of women
Increased interest in sport for women
Cruelty to animals; animals rights organisations, anti-fur campaigns, etc.
Aesthetic considerations; sexual appeal
New crazes for dancing and music, e.g. 1920s and 1960s
Designers like Coco Chanel
More emphasis on youth and youth culture
Increase in travel
Affluence or otherwise of the people at the time
Introduction of `off-the-peg' and `prêt-a-porter' clothes
Employment and unemployment
Imports and exports
Industrial Revolution--the development of power-driven textile machinery in the late eighteenth century meant better cloth faster
Discovery of new fabrics especially the synthetics, e.g. nylon
The invention of new microfibres, etc.
Sweat shops and factories meant cheaper clothes
The development of different forms of transport, e.g. the bicycle and the car
Invention of cosmetics
5.2 TEXTILE SCIENCE
CLASSIFICATION, SOURCES AND USES OF NATURAL, REGENERATED AND SYNTHETIC FIBRES
CLASSIFICATION OF FIBRES
(a) Cotten, Linen, Wool, Silk
(a) Regenerated - Rayon, Viscose rayon, Acetate, Triacetate
(b) Synthetic - Nylon, Polyester, Acrylic, Modacrylic, Elastomeric
Fibres wholly or mainly made of regenerated cellulose.
Spruce and eucalyptus give high-grade cellulose.
Produced by different processes--the viscose and cuprammonium processes.
The primary raw materials for nylon are coal, petroleum, air, and water. These raw materials were modified to produce different polymers and eventually different synthetic fibres.
Profile of one fabric manufactured from natural fibres
(1) Harvesting is the process, that takes cotton fibres from the seed or boll of the cotton plant. When they reach a certain stage of maturity they are picked.
(2) Ginning involves the separation of fibres from the seeds in the boll. Unwanted impurities are removed during this process.
(3) The cotton fibres are then pressed into bales.
(4) The cotton is graded for sale; this grading will consider the staple length, colour, and amount of impurity present. The quality will vary according to the variety of plant and the growing conditions in the area in which it has been produced.
(5) When the cotton arrives at the mill the bales are broken up, and residual foreign matter is removed. At this point various grades can be blended by mixing layers from different bales.
(6) The cotton then passes to a series of machines, which continue to loosen and clean the material by means of fans and beaters, and finally emerges in the form of continuous soft, fleecy sheets known as laps. They are similar to huge rolls of cotton wool.
- Cotton absorbs water
- Cotton is a good conductor of heat
- Cotton is a relatively inexpensive textile
- Cotton creases easily
- Cotton is stronger when wet than dry, so it can withstand frequent washing and hot water
- It is a durable fibre
- It is attacked by mildew but not by moths
- Sunlight yellows and eventually rots cotton
- Cotton tears easily, because it does not have elastic properties
- Cotton does not accumulate static electricity.
- Bed linen
- Sewing thread
- Curtains and upholstery materials.
When held over a flame, cotton burns quickly with a yellow flame. It smells of burning paper and leaves a light, feathery grey ash.
Microscopic evaluation of cotton
Information about fibres can be gained by observing them under the microscope in longitudinal and cross-sectional views. For best results, use undyed fibres on a black background. To set up a slide for a cross-sectional view, follow the directions below.
The aim of the carding process is to completely disentangle the material and remove the last traces of any impurities present.
Cotton is combed if it is to be used for fine, high quality yarns. The sliver from the carding engine is passed through machines, that make small, compact laps. The cotton is held firmly and combed by pins set in a revolving cylinder. The fibres are aligned, and any that are shorter than the required length are removed. The web produced is then condensed into a sliver.
The slivers produced by the carding and combing are loose ropes of fibres, and the density is irregular. It is necessary to draw them out to produce regular slivers. The roving is wound onto bobbins ready for spinning.
Spinning is the twisting together of the drawn-out strands of fibres to form yarns. There are three stages in the spinning process:
-- drawing out the roving
-- inserting the twist
-- winding the twisted yarn onto a bobbin.
Yarn or filament modifications
Modification of cotton occurs when the cellulose of the cotton has been treated to form a chemical derivative of cellulose, giving different types of fibres, with altered properties.
Mercerisation is such a treatment. The process of mercerisation depends on the fact that cotton fibres will swell readily in a solution of caustic soda. The swelling causes an overall shrinkage in the cotton fabric; if the fabric is stretched out during treatment so that it cannot shrink, an attractive lustre is produced. The cloth has a smoother surface. It also has improved dyeing properties.
Fabric construction techniques
(Higher-level students should be familiar with three fabric construction techniques.)
There are many ways of constructing fabric. Fabrics may be woven, knitted, felted, bonded, crocheted, knotted, or braided. Most of these methods involve interlacing yarns in some way.
The simplest form of knitting, which is used to make fabrics for such things as T-shirts, swimwear, and jumpers, is weft knitting. In weft knitting, the yarn forms horizontal rows of loops across the fabric. A horizontal row of loops in the fabric is known as a course, and a vertical row as a wale.
In the weaving process, two sets of threads are interlaced at right angles to each other. The threads that run parallel to or at the same angle as the selvage are called the warp threads. The weft threads run at right angles to the selvage and are usually not as strong as the warp threads. The warp threads are set up first on the weaving loom. There are many ways in which the weft yarn can be interlaced with the warp yarns when weaving. These different patterns produce fabrics with varying colours and handling properties. The simplest of all weaves is the plain weave. Other weaves include twill, herringbone twill, satin and Jacquard weaves.
Not all fabrics are made by interlacing yarns. Some are made directly from the fibres. Felt, for example, is made from wool fibres by a process involving heat, moisture, and pressure. Felt can be made from rayon, fur or cotton fibres or combinations of these with wool. As the fibres are not securely fastened, felted fabrics are not very strong and pull apart easily. This means that they cannot be washed, but they can be sponged clean with warm, soapy water. In bonding, fibres are laid out in sheets and an adhesive glue is applied under heat and pressure. This is a cheap method of producing interfacing fabrics for stiffening clothing and disposable dishcloths. Felt does not fray or unravel, so it is ideal for hats, slippers and fancy-dress costumes.
(Higher-level students should be familiar with three fabric finishes.) Finishing processes are designed to improve the handling and appearance or sometimes the performance of the finished fabric. The finishing will not necessarily be carried out in the final stages of production. Fabric is mercerised at a fairly early stage. The techniques used are wide and varied.
Urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde are widely used to produce crease-resistant or 'self-smoothing' fabrics. The handle of the treated fabric must not be spoilt, and the finish must be fast to washing. For this reason, the resin is inside the fabric and not merely on the surface. The urea and formaldehyde are reacted together to give a ureaformaldehyde resin, and the fabric is then impregnated with a solution of this water-soluble resin. After drying, the impregnated fabric is heated in order to 'cure' the resin. The resin is then water-insoluble and permanently in the interior of the fibres. This treatment gives the fabric a durable, crease-resistant finish, even with repeated washing.
A complex organic compound containing phosphorus and chlorine is applied to the fabric. This will react with ammonia to give an insoluble polymer and a flameproof finish. Care is needed in laundering to avoid impairing the efficiency of the finish.
It is necessary to differentiate between water-proof and shower-proof fabrics. Water-proof fabric can be produced by treatment with oil, for example oilskins. Shower-proof finishes can be applied to produce fabric that is still porous. Water-repellent fabrics can be developed by using material that reacts chemically on the fibre to give a compound with the textile material. One method is to treat cellulose with an acid chloride to produce cellulose esters. The surface compound is then hydrophobic and the finish permanent.
Polartec Windbloc has been engineered to combine warmth and comfort of fleece with a windproof, breathable barrier that is water-repellent.
Dyeing can take place at many different points during textile processing. The colour can be added to the spinning solution at the start of the process (this is known as spin dyeing), or the woven or knitted fabric can be dyed.
Stock or fibre dyeing
Loose fibres are dyed before spinning in a vat containing a dye bath. A dye bath is a dye dissolved in water. Most dyes require water temperatures near boiling point to penetrate the fibres well.
Yarn wound onto bobbins or cones placed on perforated steel rods is lowered into the dye bath. Yarn dyeing is often used for fabrics with varying weave patterns or borders.
The whole length of fabric is made and then put through the dye bath. Dye cannot always penetrate to the fibres, however, and when the yarn is pulled out, the undyed section can sometimes be seen. A good dye is colourfast, lightfast, insoluble in dry-cleaning fluids, perspiration-fast, and salt and chlorine-proof.
Printing decorates the surface of fabric. Thickened dye is laid on the surface of the fabric to form a pattern. After printing, the fabric is heated by steaming to fix the printing paste in the fabric. There are four main types of printing:
- Colour is applied directly by screens, rollers or blocks. This is called direct printing.
- The fabric is first printed with a mordant and then piece-dyed. This is called dyed printing.
- A chemical is printed on part of the fabric to prevent the dye being absorbed. The fabric is then piece-dyed, and only the non-treated part is printed. This is called resist printing.
- Dyed plain fabric is printed with bleach, which removes colour in the printed areas. This is called discharge printing.
Designs can be introduced into a fabric during the processing of the yarn or fabric, for example weaving, or at the end of the process, for example screen-printing.
(see fabric construction techniques)
Textile designers draw weave patterns on graph paper. Each square represents the crossing of yarns. If a square is blank, the weft yarn passes over the warp. If a square is filled in, the weft yarn passes under the warp. This is a plain weave.
A variation of plain weave is basket weave.
Basket weave fabrics include sailcloth and hopsack. These fabrics are very strong.
Twill weave produces diagonal lines on the cloth. This method usually produces a strong fabric, such as gabardine, denim, and wool serge.
Satin weave produces long, floating warp threads by passing weft threads at irregular intervals under four or more warp threads. These long strands give satin and silk woven in this way their shiny appearance.
(see colour application)
In batik prints, wax is used as a resist substance when dye is applied. An important part of the batik process is the preparation of the fabric. It must be thoroughly washed to remove any sizing and treated with oil or some other material to facilitate the dye penetration. The fabric is washed to remove any impurities acquired during the oiling, and then it is stiffened with a special starch to produce a smooth surface on which the design can be drawn.
The application of yarn, thread or floss is a very old method of decorating fabric. Today, machines produce most embroidered fabrics. Embroidery can be applied to fabric of almost any weight.
* FABRIC PERFORMANCE TESTING (higher level)
Tests can be carried out to show various characteristics of a fabric:
- Pilling and snagging
- Tests for finish performance
- Resistance to water
- Recovery from wrinkling
Abrasion resistance test
Stretch a piece of fabric across a block of wood. Rub the fabric vigorously for a few minutes. Note any changes to the fabric.
Water absorption test
Place a sample of wool and a sample of a synthetic fabric in sunlight for five hours. Wash each sample vigorously for ten minutes in hot soapy water. Rinse in cold water. Allow to dry. Place a drop of water on each sample, and compare the time it takes for it to be absorbed. Compare the two samples, noting changes in colour, size, and fibre structure.
5.4 THE CLOTHING AND TEXTILE INDUSTRIES
OVERVIEW OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE CLOTHING AND TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN IRELAND
The retail clothing market in Ireland is worth more than €3 billion and has grown by 59% since 1995. The Republic's clothing market has increased by 75% in that period. The high growth in the clothing market can be explained by the increasing amounts of imports coupled with the British department stores in Ireland continued expansion.
The largest segment of the Irish apparel market is women's wear which accounts for almost 33% of total sales. Within women's wear a number of significant sub-segments exist including knitwear, casual wear, tailoring, teen high fashion, and outsize. Menswear is worth 22% of the market. Footwear accounts for a further 18%, and children's wear, lingerie and accessories follow with 14%, 8%, and 5%, respectively.
Irish clothing has integrated with European and international fashion and therefore it has become increasingly difficult to define an Irish look, beyond the obvious stereotypes of 'Aran jumpers' and 'tweeds'. There are an estimated 350 firms (north and south) involved in the industry; and the majority are small family-owned and managed business. The outlook for clothing retailing in Ireland remains positive. The best prospects are in women's wear, children's wear, and accessories.
FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH
The clothing industry is influenced by a variety of factors. Recent growth in the Irish market can be largely attributed to the health of the economy, changes in the distribution structure for example the entry of British department stores, and the heightened consumer interest in the clothing sector as a result of media, youth culture and international designer influences.
DESIGNERS WORKING WITH RETAILERS IN IRELAND
Jasper Conran, Lulu Guinness, Philip Tracey, John Rocha, Louise Kennedy, Marc O'Neill, Quin and Donnelly, and Paul Costelloe.
LEADING CLOTHING BRANDS IN IRELAND
|Men' s wear||Women's wear|
|John Rocha, Magee,|
Henry White, Remus
Uomo, St Bernard,
|Lyn Mar, Quin and|
Donnelly, John Rocha,
Paul Costelloe, Ramsay,
Michael H, Primark,
St Bernard, Principles,
Brian Tucker, Libra,
A-Wear, Carraig Donn,
Regine, Sasha, Michel
The best-performing brands will deliver on consumers' expectations for fashion, functionality, fabrication and fit. It is estimated that Irish manufacturers control approximately 10-12% of the Irish clothing market. Exports account for around 50% of manufacturer's sales in the Republic of Ireland. In recent years a significantly higher proportion of Irish companies have become involved in sub-contracting their production facilities to low-wage countries such as Turkey, Portugal, the Far East, and Poland. In this way they can compete with Britain, the United States, and other European brands. Marketing and design functions remain in Ireland to control innovation and quality.
|Areas of the textile industry||Examples|
Weaving or knitting
Dyeing and finishing
Manufacture of a range of textile products, e.g. technical to fashion
Creation of new fibres, e.g. microfibres
New spinning technology, automation, with a trend towards the application of CAD-CAM
New finishing techniques, such as Teflon coating
Design, manufacture, production control, quality control
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY
- Textile design
- Clothing Design
- Systems analysis
- Quality control
- Health and safety
- Production line operations
- Pattern designer
Work may take place on the factory production line, at a computer terminal, in a laboratory or a design studio, or travelling as a buyer, and might involve research, development, investigation, and exploration.