3.5.1 Structures for Response
3.5.2 Responses in the Flowering Plant
3.5.3 Responses in the Human
H.3.5.6 Plant Growth Regulators and Animal Hormones (Extended Study)
H.3.5.7 Human Immune System (Extended Study)
H.3.5.8 Growth and Development in Bones
Chemical or hormonal system, nerve and sense organ system, muscular, skeletal and an immune system.
Tropisms: definition of the following: "phototropism", "geotropism", "thigmatropism", "hydrotropism", and "chemotropism".
Examples of phototropism and geotropism.
Regulatory system: definition of a "growth regulator", transport through the vascular system, combined effect, growth promoter and growth inhibitor.
Name four methods of anatomical or chemical adaptation that protect plants.
The nervous system: two-part division into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Neuron: its structure and function, with reference only to cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, Schwann cell, and neurotransmitter vesicles. Movement of nerve impulse. (Detailed knowledge of electro-chemistry not required). Synapse.
Activation and inactivation of neurotransmitter. Role and position of three types of neuron: sensory, motor and interneuron.
The senses, with the brain as an interpreting centre. Knowledge of the senses. Study of the eye and the ear. Corrective measures for long and short sight or for hearing.
Note: The following are not required: biochemical action, detailed structure of cochlea and semicircular canals in ear, names of sensory receptors in the skin.
Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord. Location and function of the following parts of the brain: cerebrum, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Cross-section of spinal cord indicating: white matter, grey matter and central canal (refer to their constituent bodies), three-layer protective tissue the meninges. Dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal nerve.
Peripheral nervous system: location of nerve fibres and cell bodies. Role, structure and mechanisms of the reflex action. (Cranial nerves, sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are not required).
Endocrine system: definition of a "hormone". Comparison with nerve action, distinction between exocrine and endocrine glands, with examples. Location of the principal endocrine glands in the human. For each of the glands name one hormone and give its functions. For one hormone give a description of its deficiency symptoms, excess symptoms, and corrective measures.
Musculoskeletal system: description of the structure and functions of the skeleton. Component parts of the axial skeleton: skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum. Position and function of discs in relation to vertebrae.
Component parts of the appendicular skeleton: pectoral and pelvic girdles and their attached limbs.
Macroscopic anatomy of a long bone: medullary cavity, compact bone, spongy bone, and cartilage.
Function of the following: cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone (include red and yellow marrows). (T.S of bone is not required).
Classification, location and function of joints: immovable, slightly movable, free-moving or synovial.
Role of cartilage and ligaments in joints.
Role of tendons.
General relation of muscles to the skeleton antagonistic muscle pairs as exemplified by one human pair.
The defence system in humans: general defence system to include the skin and mucous membrane lining of the breathing, reproductive and digestive tracts. Phagocytic white blood cells.
Specific defence system (immune system): antigen antibody response. Definition of "induced immunity".
Viruses: identify the problem of definition. Variety of shapes. Basic structure. Viral reproduction.
Study auxin as an example of a plant growth regulator under the headings of production site(s), function, and effects.
Explanation of the mechanism of plant response to any one external stimulus.
Description of the feedback mechanism of any one animal hormonal system.
Role of lymphocytes: B and T cell types. Role of B cells in antibody production. Role of T cells as helpers, killers, suppressors, and memory T cells.
Osteoblast role in bone growth. Terminating development of adult height. Role of osteoblasts in bone cell replacement. Bone renewal. Role of calcium in bone.
Use of plant regulators: any two examples
Nervous system disorders: any one example of a nervous system disorder, from the following: paralysis and Parkinson's disease; one possible cause, prevention, and treatment.
Hormone supplements: two examples of their use.
Disorders of the musculoskeletal system: one example of a musculoskeletal disorder, from the following: arthritis and osteoporosis; one possible cause, prevention, and treatment.
Vaccination and immunisation.
Economic and medical importance of viruses: two harmful examples, one beneficial example.
|Investigate the effect of I.A.A. growth regulator on plant tissue.|