Greek, of which the modern Greek language is its latest development, belongs to the family of Indo-European languages. With the decipherment of the Linear B tablets, the written record of the Greek language now extends back to at least 1200 B.C.
The ancient Greeks were the first European people to record comprehensively consciously and unconsciously - their intellectual development in the historical, psychological political, philosophical, literary, artistic and mathematical domains. Consequently the roots of most major intellectual pursuits today derive ultimately from a Greek foundation. In the political field, for example, we owe to the Greeks our notions of monarchy, oligarchy and democracy.
Indeed the words we use to indicate such political situations are themselves Greek, as is the fundamental term 'politician'. Likewise, the need we feel to investigate and record impartially contemporary events for future gen, erations (essentially current affairs and history) was a Greek preoccupation. (The Greek word historia means both 'the activity of learning by inquiry' and 'the retelling of what one has learnt by inquiry', which is what the great Greek historians and philosophers tried to do.)
The Greeks recorded this intellectual development not only with the brilliant clarity of pioneers but with a sublimity which transcends its era and guarantees its timelessness.
The particular educational importance of Greek rests on the following general considerations:
- its use as the medium of expression in the creation and development of major areas of intellectual endeavour, including epic, lyric and dramatic poetry, history, oratory, philosophy, religion and mathematics
- as a consequence, the existence in the Greek language of writings in these areas which are fundamental to an understanding not only of the ancient Greeks themselves but of the subsequent development of our civilisation
- the existence in the Greek language of many of the finest works in world literature
- the beauty of the Greek language as a means of communication
- the creation by the ancient Greeks of a vocabulary - basically the one in use today -to describe the literary, historical, dramatic, political, philosophical, artistic, architectural, mathematical and scientific dimensions of our intellectual existence
- the profound lessons to be learnt from a study of Greek history, in particular of the fifth century B.C.
- the wonderful world of Greek myth and legend
- the use of Greek as the language of the New Testament as well as of the Septuagint, the highly influential pre-Christian translation of the Hebrew Bible
- the development by the Greeks of forms of art and architecture which serve today as a visual manifestation of, and complement to, their other intellectual achievements
In essence, the Greek language and the civilisation which its speakers created encapsulate an articulate and comprehensive response to living in the world. This response, because of its priority in time and the genius of the Greek people, has a unique clarity, immediacy and importance.
It is important to appreciate the special role of the Greek language in the preservation and transmission of classical civilisation through
- its powerful impact on the education and outlook of the political and intellectual leaders of the Roman Republic and Empire
- its status later as the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire centred in Byzantium down to 1453 A.D.
Through these channels it ultimately inspired the Renaissance and laid the foundations of modern civilisation. In a real sense Greek language and civilisation have acted as the bridge which spanned the Dark Ages of Europe, maintaining continuity and inspiration in its development.
It must be understood, however, that, whatever its contribution to the preservation and renewal of civilisation the Greek language will always be worthy of study in its own right. Because of the richness of its written works it is in on sense local but truly universal. 2
In summary, therefore, the subject Greek carries out the vital function of maintaining our society's direct contact with Greek language and civilisation, bringing students into touch with the very roots of our intellectual existence.
The general aims of Junior Certificate Greek are to enable pupils:-
- to read, understand and enjoy Greek
- to acquire a knowledge and understanding of Greek history, civilisation, myth and legend
- to become aware of the immense and abiding influence of Greek language and civilisation on the modern world
- in particular, to appreciate its role in the formation of a common European heritage and outlook
Springing from these general aims are the more specific aims which follow:
- To teach comprehension of the Greek language for reading purposes. In doing this the teacher views the language as the most immediate authentic source material for coming to know the Greeks, their literature and the culture which they developed.
- To give students such knowledge of the Greek language in grammatical and syntactical terms as will best facilitate the achievement of 1.
- In pursuit of aims 1. and 2. , to demonstrate, at an appropriate level, the special structure, flexibility and beauty inherent in the Greek language.
- To give students a basic understanding of the historical growth of what were, in effect, the first European people to record comprehensively their development for posterity.
- To examine, in particular, the crucial period of Greek history from approximately 500 to 430 B.C. 3
- To give students a basic understanding of the major political and social institutions of Athens and Sparta, e.g. the polis, deme, education and athletic games.
- To give students an introduction to the major Greek myths and legends.
- To demonstrate the influence of the Greek language in creating our scientific, technological, philosophical, political, mathematical and other vocabulary, and particularly in satisfying the vocabulary dernands of the newer sciences, thereby making a significant contribution both to the students' general understanding of the growth and meaning of words and to their general level of literacy
- To make entry into the Leaving Certificate programme in Greek a smooth and natural progression for students.
- To leave pupils who are not in a position to continue the study of Greek after Junior Certificate with the feeling that the subject has contributed something of great value to their lives.
3. COURSE OBJECTIVES
Course objectives list the concepts, knowledge, skills and attitudes which students should acquire and develop through this syllabus.
Pupils will develop an understanding of the following key concepts on which the syllabus is based:
- the concept of a classical language, that is, a language which developed into the language spoken and written by the great majority of the people in a highly developed civilisation over an extended period of time; during which time the unique genius of this people was memorably expressed in a variety of gen res of writing in this language; the best examples of which writing make universal statements transcending time and place;
- the concept of such a classical language having reached at a certain undefined point in time a permanent unchanging form which can be neither added to nor reduced in the vvay that a modern spoken language can;
- the concept of a civilisation which, as a consequence of 1. and 2. above, can be immediately and authentically understood through this complete and unchanging form of its language;
- the concept of dialect of which important examples survive in Greek;
- the concept of the coming into being and the passing away of high civilisations; and of how we come to know of such civilisations in a special way through study of their language and literature, reinforced also by some knowledge of their art, archaeology and social life;
- the concepts of democracy and despotism, through a comparative study of Athenian and Persian societies of the fifth century B.C.
Pupils will acquire
- a knowledge of the Greek language appropriate to their age;
- such a knowledge of Greek grammar, whether acquired formally or functionally as will give them an appropriate level of understanding and appreciation of the special structure of the Greek language;
- as a consequence of 1. and 2. above, a practical understanding of the differences between a synthetic language such as Greek, (i.e. a language characterised by the frequent and systematic use of inflected grammatical forms of individual words to convey meaning), and an analytical one such as English (i.e. a language which characteristically conveys meaning by combinations of separate words rather than by inflection) e.g. he was doing this while he was general compared with ***; and in this regard an appreciation of the special affinities in language structure existing between the Irish language and Greek;
- some knowledge and appreciation of Greek literature through study of appropriate examples;
- an understanding of Athenian society, and in particular of its democracy;
- a general understanding of Spartan society and how it contrasted with Athenian society;
- a general understanding of Greek history from the period at which the Ionian people came into conflict with the Persian Empire down to the period when the Greeks came into prolonged conflict with each other in the Peloponnesian War;
- a general understanding of how particular outstanding individuals affected the course of Greek history;
- a general knowledge of Greek myth, legend and religion, including oracles;
- an understanding of Athenian and Spartan education and their essential differences.
Pupils should automatically develop certain skills, such as the following, through study of Greek language, literature, history, civilisation and mythology as they are outlined in this syllabus:
- the ability to translate appropriate passages of Greek into the vernacular in a way that is accurate, clear and natural;
- the ability to comprehend passages of Greek pitched at the appropriate level of difficulty;
- the ability to translate the vernacular language into Greek at an appropriate level of difficulty ( composition);
- the ability to read Greek aloud with clarity, understanding and conviction;
- the ability to analyse and classify Greek words, clauses or sentences in such a way as to enhance their grasp and enjoyment of the Greek language, as well as to deepen their understanding of the vernacular and other languages;
- an appropriate level of ability in word derivation (etymology) through analysis of both Greek words and of words in vernacular languages which are derived from Greek;
- through such etymological exercises, the ability to perceive some of the principles of language growth;
- through 1. to 7. above, some elements of the skills of precision and logic;
- the ability to assess the similarities and dissimilarities between modern civilisations and Greek civilisation;
- the ability to retrieve and record accurately essential information from various sources, especially in the core area of language study; e.g. the correct retrieval and application of information derived from the Greek dictionary is a particularly vital skill;
- the ability to apply knowledge acquired in the study of Greek to other areas of study and life.
From their study of this syllabus, pupils should develop naturally certain altitudes, such as the following:
- through acquiring a constructive knowledge of the Greek language, an appreciation of the unique role of language in transmitting a picture of a people and civilisation, whatever the intervening time barrier;
- an appreciation of the uniqueness of each age and civilisation;
- an understanding and appreciation of how much we have in common with civilisations of the past;
- a desire to cherish the record of the past and an appreciation of the need to preserve and transmit it to future generations:
- through the example of fifth-century B.C. Athens, a realisation of the possibility for even small communities to fulfil themselves in the intellectual, artistic, architectural, spiritual and recreational senses.
4. SYLLABUS STRUCTURE
The six general areas of study within the Junior Certificate Greek syllabus are listed below, together with the recommended proportion of time to he allocated to each:
|(a)||Translation and Background Study of Prescribed Greek||15 %|
|(b)||Translation of Unprescribed Greek||35%|
|(c)||Comprehension of Greek (including Grammar and Etymology)||15%|
|(f)||Greek Civilisation, Myth and Legend||10%|
The syllabus is so structured that pupils must undertake study of all the areas above. The comparatively large time weighting given to Greek History and Greek Civilisation, Myth and Legend is due to the considerable emphasis which these areas should receive in the first year of Greek. In second and third year this time weighting would he considerably less in these areas, allowing greater time for mastery of Greek language which is the main aim of the syllabus. The syllabus strikes, however, an appropriate overall balance between literature/language/grammar and history/civilisation/myth/legend.
The mark allocations in the terminal examination do not reflect exactly the time weightings shown here. (See Section 7.2 for details of mark weighting.)
5. LEVEL DIFFERENTIATION
The syllabus is offered at two levels, Ordinary and Higher.
The syllabus framework is common to both levels. At Higher Level, however, pupils will be required to have reached a higher level of attainment in translation of Prescribed and Unprescribed Greek, and in Greek Comprehension, Grammar and Composition.
The specific requirements at the the two levels in Prescribed Greek, Grammar and Composition are given in the relevant areas of Syllabus Content in Section 6 following.
Pupils at Higher Level will be required to read a greater quantity of Greek Literature than pupils at Ordinary Level. (See details in Section 6.2)
In Translation of Unprescribed Greek and in Comprehension, Grammar and Composition, the attainment of pupils at Higher Level should reflect their wider study of Prescribed and Unprescribed Greek, Grammar and Composition.
6. SYLLABUS CONTENT
N.B. six general areas of the syllabus (See Section 4.1 for the list of these areas) may, in the main, be studied to the appropriate level by following Book I of Athenaze, An Introduction to Ancient Greek, Oxford University Press, 1990. This textbook aims to teach pupils to read and understand Greek within the context of fifth-century Greek civilisation and culture, and all elements in it are meant to contribute to this end. Consequently Athenaze neatly fits in with the period of Greek history prescribed in this syllabus (499 - 429 B.C.)
Athenaze, Book I, does not, however, satisfy entirely all the requirements of this syllabus, particularly in some elements of Greek Language, Grammar, History and Legend. Consequently it must he supplemented by prescribed readings from Greek Through Reading Nairn and Nairn, Bristol Classical Press, which address many of these elements in a setting appropriate to what is basically a reading course in Greek.
6.1 Translation of Unprescribed Greek
Society relies on the skill of the translator to convey in each generation the substance of ancient writing in a manner which is both accurate and as close as possible to the spirit of the original. The study of Greek aims to foster and maintain this skill both in the individual and in society.
The syllabus is, in the main, a reading course in Greek. Translation of passages of unprescribed Greek is the visible indicator of success in this major aim of reading and understanding the language. The act of translation is the pupil's immediate encounter with, and interpretation of, matter which derives directly from the ancient world.
Greek should he read from the start and pupils should get frequent practice in oral and written translation into the vernacular, with an emphasis on accurate and idiomatic translation.
The reading aloud of Greek should become a regular part of the exercise in translation as, with practice, it becomes an important aid in signalling the overall structure of the language e.g. the balance of phrase, subordinate clause and main clause in the sentence as a whole.
It is vital for the success of this syllabus that pupils come to relish the challenge of making translations of unperceived Greek so that the ultimate aim is achieved: confidence and anticipation in confronting Greek drawn from the great writers of the Classical era. Through carefully graded reading this aim will be achieved.
The ideal first Greek textbook will be one which contains easy, short, interesting and gently graded Greek passages for translation - dealing with Greek life, history and mythology (illustrated if possible), - which also contains suitable exercises in comprehension, grammar, etymology and composition, reinforcing what the pupil learns from reading the passages of Greek. The textbook for pupils, Athenaze, An Introduction to Ancient Greek, Book 1, satisfies these criteria and indicates the standard of unprescribed reading expected from pupils over a three-year course of study.
Athenaze, Book I, provides ample classroom reading material, in conjunction with the passages of Prescribed material, for a three-year course in the study of Unprescribed Greek. Book II of Athenaze is a natural progression to Book I and is a valuable (but not prescribed) source of reinforcing reading matter.
N.B. It is of the utmost importance that the Teacher's Handbook, Volume I, which accompanies the textbook Athenaze, Book I, be followed in the reading of Athenaze, Book I, since it outlines in detail the purposes of each chapter, as well as providing a complete key to all the passages of Greek and accompanying exercises. In this way, the pupil will make steady and enjoyable progress in the reading of Greek. It is vital that the teacher avoid spending too much time on particular passages or difficulties since continual reinforcement has been built into the text, especially in the areas of vocabulary and construction.
In the terminal written examination, passages of Unprescribed Translation will be based on the vocabulary and general level of difficulty encountered in Athenaze, Book I.
6.2 Translation of Prescribed Greek and its Background
The prescription of a body of Greek literature enables pupils to make a deeper exploration of selected texts of high quality and accessibility. It also affords the opportunity to examine the background to these texts and to place them and their authors in a historical, social and cultural setting, thus adding significantly to pupils' perception of the Greek world. In addition, a number of these texts serve to illustrate aspects of the prescribed History, Civilisation, Myth and Legend areas of the syllabus, which aids the general integration of the syllabus. The Prescribed Passages are to be found in the textbook (Greek Through Reading Nairn and Nairn, Bristol Classical Press.
Pupils at Ordinary Level are required to study the following selection from Greek ThroughReading - 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38.*
Pupils at Higher Level are required to study the Ordinary Level selection as well as the following:- 49, 50, 52, 58, 64, 65, 66, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84.*
* See APPENDIX for the titles of these prescribed passages.
6.3 Comprehension of Greek (including Grammar and Etymology)
Passages of Greek for comprehension purposes are an excellent vehicle for testing the progress of pupils who have been involved in a course which has focussed primarily on the reading of Greek and are a regular feature of the prescribed reader, Athenaze, Book 1.
Comprehension of a passage in a language other than the vernacular does not necessarily demand the precision of a translation which is, in effect, a refinement of the skill of comprehension. Comprehension initially tests the reader's ability to grasp the overall meaning of a passage. The pupil who is consistently exposed to passages of Greek will come to grasp instinctively the general tenor of an appropriately pitched passage of Greek. From this the pupil, guided by the specifics of questions on the particular passage, proceeds to demonstrate a deeper grasp of the passage. In doing this, the pupil is not concerned with idiom or style but with understanding i.e. comprehension. The discipline of Comprehension also helps pupils to realise that language is not always something which has to be translated into the vernacular, but which can be read simply for enjoyment and for the retrieval of ideas.
Composition is the means by which pupils are exposed most directly to the study of formal grammar, although, of course, this can happen as readily in analysis of a passage of prescribed or unperceived Greek. Since the emphasis in this syllabus is on the reading of Greek, it is appropriate to test some aspects of grammar within the setting of the passage of Greek used for Comprehension. In this way the elements of the language being tested can be seen in their natural setting. In addition, the passage affords a wider choice of samples to teacher, pupil and examiner e.g. the passage will invariably contain numerous examples of nouns, verbs, adjectives, as well as various constructions in context. Thus the testing of grammar becomes more meaningful to pupils, while also affording some opportunity to show what one knows rather than what one does not know. The general intention, therefore, is to make the study of grammar in the classroom fairer, less arid and isolated in its context, and this will be reflected in the examination.
To be able to answer grammar questions within the context of the Comprehension question in the terminal examination pupils should have studied the following:
- the inflection of nouns and adjectives of all declensions
- the inflection of personal pronouns
- the inflection of Present and Aorist participles, Active and Middle Voices
- the Present Imperative, Active and Middle Voices of common regular verbs and of the three types of contract verb
- the Present, Future, Imperfect and Aorist Tenses, Active, Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, of common regular verbs and of the three types of contract verb (therefore not the old form of 'Principal Parts' but the tenses which are encountered in Athenaze, Book 1)
- the use of the impersonal verbs
- the verb (I am) in the Present and Imperfect Tenses, Indicative Mood
- the comparison of adjectives, including the common irregular ones (see Athenaze, Book 1, pages 170-173 for full treatment and page 223 for a summary of these)
- the ability to recognise simple cases of Purpose and Result Clauses, and Genitive Absolutes (note that these are encountered regularly in the passages of Prescribed Greek but are not formally treated in Athenaze, Book 1, though a few examples are met there)
- the relative pronoun and relative clauses
- the comparison of adverbs (any questions on these to be limited to Higher level)
- the ability to recognise in the passage of Greek for Comprehension any of the constructions which are listed for study under Section 6.6 (Greek Composition) below
Etymology (the derivation of words and general word study) has been integrated into Athenaze and pupils will be expected to have examined the numerous examples appearing in Book I of that text. This involves some understanding of Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes which appear regularly in vernacular languages, especially in scientific, medical, political, philosophical, literary and artistic terminology. Where the passage of Greek used for Comprehension permits, pupils' knowledge in this area will be examined. Questions will be based on the examples given in Athenaze, Book I, or on elements of Greek language regularly encountered in Athenaze, Book I. (See page 108 of the Teacher's Handbook, Volume I, to Athenaze, Book 1. for the full Word Study Index.) 14
6.6 Greek Composition
Greek Composition is a valuable instrument for ensuring a sound knowledge of morphology and syntax and is used in Athenaze principally for this purpose, but it alsoserves to reinforce vocabulary encountered in the Greek sections of the text. Moreover, for teacher and pupil it brings variety of exercise. Practice in Composition also reassures pupils of a certain type, especially those who feel the need to have access to the formalised overall structure of a language, whatever the difficulties which exist for them in reading Greek. To summarise, Composition can achieve the following:
- help to fix in the mind the various inflections of nouns and verbs and the rules of
- give insight into the special ways in which the Greek mind formulated its expressions in speech and in the written word;
- assist not only in coming to terms with Greek grammar specifically but also with the
- through making pupils utilise the Greek language as a tool of composition, make them better able to appreciate the achievements of Greek writers.
The knowledge of Greek Composition required of pupils in the terminal examination will be based on the vocabulary, grammar and constructions used in the Composition exercises in Athenaze, Book I. Consequently knowledge of the following features will be necessary:
- first, second and third decIension nouns and adjectives
- formation of adverbs
- the definite article
- personal pronouns
- the relative pronoun and expression of relative clauses
- the Present, Imperfect and Aorist Tenses, Active and Middle Voices, Indicative Mood of verbs, including the three types of contract verb
- the Present and Aorist Tenses, Active and Middle Voices, Infinitive Mood of verbs
- the Present and Aorist Tenses, Active and Middle Voices, Imperative Mood of verbs
- formation of participles in the Present and Aorist Tenses, Active and Middle Voices
- the expression of Direct and Indirect Commands
- the expression of Indirect Statement after ****
- the expression of Direct and Indirect Questions
- special uses of Dative Case (See Athenaze, Book I, pages 64-65 and verb list on page 242)
- agreement and apposition generally
- common prepositions
- the interrogative pronoun and adjective ***, **
- the indefinite pronoun and adjective ***, **(enclitic - see Athenaze, Book I, pages 79 and 209)
- the impersonal verbs *** and ******
- questions using the interrogative adverbs ***, *** *****, ****, ***, ***, ***, **
- the demonstrative adjectives *****, *******, ***
- expression of time within which, time when, duration of time (See Athenaze, Book I, Page 165)
- the cardinal numerals from 1 to 10 (Ordinary level) and from 20 to 100 and the declension of *** and ***** (Higher level only)
- the ordinal numerals from 'first' to 'tenth' (Higher level only)
N.B. Note that the type of sentences used to test Composition will reflect very closely the examples used in Athenaze, Book I.
6.7 Greek History
- The prescribed period of history begins with the Ionian Revolt from the Persians (499 B.C.) and ends with the death of Pericles (429 B.C.) in the third year of the Pelopnnesian War.
In many ways, these 70 years are the most memorable and momentous in the whole of Greek history, principally because of the astonishing achievements of the Athenians during this time. For example, they developed a vigorous democracy, withstood invasions by the forces of the great Persian Empire, began to record their times formally in great works of history and produced three great tragic dramatists as well as the philosopher Socrates. It was during this period too that Classical Art and Architecture evolved to their highest level of achievement. Simultaneously the Spartans, while failing to match the Athenians in any of their intellectual and artistic achievements, imposed themselves just as powerfully on this age through their military power, discipline and heroism. The Athenians epitomised daring, freedom, adventure, the Spartans conservatism, steadiness and extreme caution. In the first decades of this period these two extremes in Greek life, the Athenian and Spartan, combined lo ward off the common enemy, Persia, but inevitably drifted further and further apart afterwards until they ended up fighting each other in a long and tragic war.
- In covering this period of Greek history the task of the teacher is to give pupils a good general understanding of the following major events:
- How the Athenians came into conflict with the Persian Empire
- How the remainder of the Greek world became involved in this conflict
- How the Greeks defeated the Persian Empire
- The growth of an Athenian Empire as a consequence of the Greek victory over the Persians
- The growth of tension between Athens and Sparta and the division of Greece into two warring camps
- The outbreak of the Peloponnesian War
- Before commencing a study along these general lines the teacher should give the following preliminary background information:
- A brief outline of Greek colonisation, with particular reference to the presence of Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor (see essay 'Trade and Travel' in Athenaze, Book I, p.143ff)
- An explanation of who the Ionian Greeks were - An historical outline of Athens and its new democracy (see short essays 'The Deme and the Polis' - 'Athens: A Historical Outline' - 'The Rise of Athens' on pages 24-26, 86-88, and 173-175 of Athenaze, Book I)
- An outline of the origin of the Persian Empire (see essay 'The Rise of Persia' on pages 156-159 of Athenaze, Book I, also the 'Date Chart' en page xii)
- Having set the scene in this way the teacher should deal with the following items in sequence, bearing in mind that many of these are touched upon in essays and passages of Greek in Athenaze, Book I, and (for Higher Level pupils) in some of the passages for Prescribed Reading Greek Through Reading. (Page references in brackets refer to Athenaze, Book I):
[N.B. Teachers should not enter into excessive detail in dealing with any of the areas outlined below. Somewhat greater emphasis, however, should be given to the areas shown in bold print. A reasonable understanding of the major trends in the prescribed period, combined with a good knowledge of the major personalities - a full list of these personalities is given in section (e) following this one - would be an appropriate level at which to aim. Teachers, however, should not be inhibited from treating in some depth areas in which they are particularly interested.]
- After expelling Hippias the tyrant, the Athenians set up a democracy (c. 507 B.C.)
- The Ionians, with Athenian backing, revolt from Persia and burn Sardis (ps.158, 174)
- The Ionians are defeated at Lade (p.158) and Miletus is captured (494 B.C.) - Miltiades, tyrant of the Chersonese, flees to Athens with valuable insight into Persian character and capabilities
- The First Persian War (490 B.C.): the Athenians and Plataeans, under Miltiades, defeat the Persians (guided by Hippias) at Marathon (ps. 158-159 and prescribed passage 84 in Greek Through Reading)
- In the decade 491-481 B.C. Athens wages war against Aegina, building up exceptional skill in naval warfare.
- Miltiades fails to capture the island of Paros for Athens in 489 B.C., is disgraced and dies in jail
- In 485 B.C. Xerxes becomes King of Persia
- Aristides, who favours development of the army rather than the navy, is ostracised from Athens (483 B.C.)
- Themistocles, who favours development of the navy, becomes archon at Athens, builds 200 triremes out of the revenue from the silver mines of Laurium (Laurion) and builds a new harbour at Peiraeus (483-482 B.C.)
- The Second Persian War (480-479 B.C.) : Xerxes sets out from Sardis and bridges the Hellespont - he is resisted temporarily by Spartans under Leonidas at Thermopylae - successes of the Greek fleet at Artemisium (Artemision) - after the fall of Thermopylae the Athenians abandon Athens and the Greek fleet retreats south to Salamis - Themistocles brings on the sea battle at Salamis in which the Greeks score a stunning victory - Xerxes returns home, leaving Mardonius to carry on the struggle by land - Mardonius is utterly defeated at Plataea by the Greeks, under the command of Pausanias, the Spartan, and Aristides, the Athenian, - the Greek fleet defeats the Persians at Mycale and many Ionian cities are liberated (ps. 166-170, 173-178, 180-183, 186-196 , 198-199, 206, for maps, essays and accounts in Greek of most items listed in this section; and prescribed passages 74, 75 and 84 in Greek through Reading)
- Themistocles fortifies Athens and Peiraeus with new walls (478 B.C.)
- Pausanias, the Spartan, behaves arrogantly as commander of the Greek fleet in its campaign against the Persians in the northern Aegean and the leadership passes to the Athenians, their first step towards Empire
- Aristides organises the Confederacy of Deles to protect Greece and the freed cities from the Persians for ever (478-477 B.C.)
- Themistocles is ostracised from Athens (472 B.C.) and gains asylum in Persia.
- Cimon, son of Miltiades, as commander of the forces of the Delian League defeats the the Persians on a number of occasions, indicating the celebrated victory by land and by sea at the Eurymedon river (468 B.C.)
- The Confederacy of Delos is slowly transformed into an Athenian Empire by the dominant position held by Athens and the aloofness of Sparta - Naxos, for example, is reduced in 466 B.C. by the Athenians for refusing to pay her annual contribution and becomes a tributary of Athens - Thasos also falls to Cimon
- The Helots and Messenians revolt when an earthquake occurs in Sparta (464 B.C) and the Athenians send Cimon to help the Spartans - The Spartans send him home without proper explanation and ill-feeling increases between the two major powers (461 B.C.)
- Cimon is ostracised by the Athenians and the Athenian alliance with Sparta is renounced in favour of one with Argos (461 B.C.)
- Pericles and Ephialtes reduce the powers of the Areopagus in Athens and introduce payment of jurors (461 B.C.) but Ephialtes is assassinated
- Failure of a daring Athenian expedition to Egypt against the occupying Persians there (460 - 454 B.C.)
- Athens wins over Megara (459 B.C.), which gives her direct access to the Gulf of Corinth
- In 458 B.C. the Athenians destroy the naval power of Aegina and force Aegina to join the Confederacy of Delos
- Sparta attempts to build up the power of Thebes in Boeotia as a counterbalance to Athenian power
- The Spartans, returning from Thebes, defeat the Athenians at Tanagra and are able to return home by Megara (457 B.C.) - Cimon is recalled from exile
- The Athenians become masters of all Boeotia, except Thebes, by their victory at Oenophyta in 457 B.C. - Soon after, the Confederacy treasury is moved to Athens
- A five year truce is signed between Athens and Sparta (450 B.C.)
- Death of Cimon while campaigning in Cyprus against Persians (449 B.C.)
- Athens negotiates peace with Persia (c. 448 B.C.) and Cyprus is abandoned to its fate
- The Athenians are defeated by the Boeotians at Coronea and are forced to give up Boeotia, while Megara and Euboea revolt (447 B.C.)
- Pericles, using Confederacy funds, begins the beautification of Athens (447 B.C.)
- Having reduced Euboea, Athens signs the Thirty Years Peace with Sparta (445 B.C.)
- Pericles remains supreme at Athens and is elected general every year until his death (444-429 B.C.) and his rival Thucydides is ostracised
- Samos revolts from Athens and is subdued by Pericles (440 B.C.)
- Causes of the Peloponnesian War: quarrel between Corinth and Corcyra over Epidamnus and the defensive alliance of Athens with Corcyra - the revolt of Potidaea, a colony of Corinth, from Athens and its siege by the Athenians - the growth of Athenian power generally and mutual suspicion between the two superpowers - pressure from Sparta's allies
- The invasion of Attica by the Peloponnesians in 431 B.C.
- The outbreak of plague in Athens and the death of Pericles (430-429 B.C.)
- the following personalities may be used as focal and unifying points of reference for the prescribed period:
Hippias, Miltiades, Xerxes, Themistocles, Aristides, Leonidas, Pausanias, Mardonius, Cimon, Pericles.
- Apart from some knowledge of the matters outlined above, students should, on completion of the prescribed history course, have some knowledge of the following:
- the notion of democracy
- the notion of despotism
- bravery and patriotism
- how Empires can come into being and grow
- how conflict can arise between peoples
- Teachers should inform pupils of the survival of vital fifth-century B.C. accounts of the prescribed period of history: (i) Herodotus' Histories, Books 5-9, for the Persian Wars and (ii) Thucydides' The Peloponnesian War, Book 1, for a summary of events between 478 and 431 B.C., including a full account of the later careers of Pausanias and Themistocles and the causes of the Peloponnesian War.
6.8 Greek Civilisation Myth and Legend
The knowledge required of pupils is confined to those areas of Greek Civilisation, Myth and Legend which feature in the two prescribed texts, Athenaze, Book 1 and Greek ThroughReading whether they occur in passages of Greek or in essays. As with Greek History, detailed knowledge of these areas is not required. The following Sections give the areas to be studied:-
6.9 Greek Civilisation
Athenaze, Book I: Greek farming; Slavery; Deme and Polis; the status of Women; the city of Athens; Festivals; Greek medicine; Trade and Travel; Sparta and Athens contrasted; theatre in Athens.
Greek Through Reading. The Olympic Games
6.10 Greek Myth and Legend
Athenaze, Book I: Gods and Men; Myth, using the example of Prometheus, Epimetheus and Pandora's box; Theseus, the Minotaur, Ariadne and Aegeus; Homer: Odysseus and the Cyclops; Odysseus and Aeolas; Odysseus and Circe; Odysseus loses his companions.
Greek Through Reading Phoebus Apollo and Artemis; Hermes; Demeter; Aphrodite; Heracles; Theseus, Castor and Polydeuces; Agamemnon; Achilles; Odysseus; Jason and the Argonauts; Perseus and Andromeda; Deucalion and Pyrrha; Orpheus; Prometheus; The Sphinx.
For Higher Level Only: Odysseus and Alcinous; Arion.
On completion of the course, Assessment will measure the progress of students - at a level appropriate to their age and ability, as reflected in Ordinary and Higher Level examination papers - in the following areas:
Knowledge and Understanding of
- Greek language
- Greek grammar
- Greek literature
- Greek History from 499 B.C. to 429 B.C.
- leading personalities in Greek history from 499 B.C to 429 B.C.
- Greek civilisation
- Greek myth and legend
Skill and Ability in
- Translation of the Greek language
- Comprehension of the Greek language
- Composition of Greek language
- Explication of important historical, political and social aspects of Greek civilisation
7.2 Mark Weightings
The mark weightings in the assessment at the two levels will be as follows:
|Area||Percentage of Marks|
|Translation of Prescribed Greek (Including Background)||25%|
|Translation of Unpresribed Greek||20%|
|Comprehension of Greek (including Grammar and Eytmology)||20%|
|Greek Civilisation, Myth and Legend||7.5%|
7.3 Format of the Examination Papers
There will be two examination papers, one at Ordinary Level and one at Higher Level. The total mark for each paper will be 400.
Each paper will have seven questions, at the appropriate level of difficulty, in the following order:
Q.1* Translation of a passage of Prescribed Greek (10%) and one background question (2.5%) = 12.5% or 50 marks
Q .2* As for Q.1 = 12.5% or 50 marks
Q.3 Translation of a passage of Unprescribed Greek = 20% or 80 marks
Q.4 Comprehension of a passage of Greek (including Grammar and Etymology) = 20% or 80 marks
Q.5 Composition of sentences from the vernacular into Greek = 20% or 80 marks
Q.6 Two questions on Greek History, one only of which must he answered = 7.5% or 30 marks
Q.7 Two questions on Greek Civilisation, Myth and Legend, one only of which must he answered = 7.5% or 30 marks
*In Question 1, the passage of Greek text at both levels will be chosen from the passages prescribed for Ordinary Level.
In Question 2 at Higher Level the passage of Greek text will always be chosen from those prescribed for Higher Level.
APPENDIX - Titles and authors of Prescribed Passages in Greek Through Reading
Ordinary and Higher Level -
15. Phoebus Apollo and Artemis by Apollodorus
16. Hermes by Apollodorus
17. Demeter by Apollodorus
18. Aphrodite by Apollodorus
21. Heracles by Apollodorus
22. Theseus by Apollodorus
23. Castor and Polydeuces by Apollodorus
24. Agamemnon by Apollodorus
25. Achilles by Apollodorus
27. Odysseus by Apollodorus
30. The Argonauts by Apollodorus
31. The Argonauts (continued) by Apollodorus
32. Perseus and Andromeda by Apollodorus
33. Deucalion and Pyrrha by Apollodorus
34. Orpheus by Apollodorus
35. Prometheus by Apollodorus
36. The Sphinx by Apollodorus
37. The Frogs Ask for a King by Aesop
38. The town mouse and the country mouse by Aesop
Higher Level Only -
49. The tent of Achilles before Troy, after Homer
50. At the Court of King Menelaus, King of Sparta, after Homer
52. How a baby was saved from a cruel death by Herodotus
58. Revellers "gate-crash" a feast by Plato
64. At the Court of Alcinous in Phaeacia, after Homer
65. A boar hunt by Herodotus
66. A boar hunt (continued) by Herodotus
67. The Olympic Games by Apollodorus
73. The Story of the minstrel Arion by Herodotus
74. The battle of Salamis, 480 B.C. by Herodotus
75. Exploit of Queen Artemisia at Salamis by Herodotus
84. The Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C. by Herodotus